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We developed a molecular sorter that operates without external power or control by integrating the microtubule-based, biological motor kinesin into a microfluidic channel network to sort, transport, and concentrate molecules. In our devices, functionalized microtubules that capture analyte molecules are steered along kinesin-coated microchannel tracks(More)
Rapid, quantitative detection of cell-secreted biomarker proteins with a low sample volume holds great promise to advance cellular immunophenotyping techniques for personalized diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Here we achieved such an assay with the THP-1 human acute moncytic leukemia cell line (a model for human monocyte) using a highly(More)
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanoplasmonic effects allow for label-free, real-time detection of biomolecule binding events on a nanostructured metallic surface with simple optics and sensing tunability. Despite numerous reports on LSPR bionanosensing in the past, no study thus far has applied the technique for a cytokine secretion assay using(More)
Polycrystalline silicon is used in microelectronic and microelectromechanical devices for which thermal design is important. This work measures the in-plane thermal conductivities of free-standing undoped polycrystalline layers between 20 and 300 K. The layers have a thickness of 1 +m, and the measurements are performed using steady-state Joule heating and(More)
This work is the first demonstration of electrical modulation of surface energy to reversibly switch dynamic high-speed gas-liquid two-phase microfluidic flow patterns. Manipulation of dynamic two-phase systems with continuous high-speed flows is complex and interesting due to the multiple types of forces that need to be considered. Here, distinct stable(More)
An accurate measurement of the immune status in patients with immune system disorders is critical in evaluating the stage of diseases and tailoring drug treatments. The functional cellular immunity test is a promising method to establish the diagnosis of immune dysfunctions. The conventional functional cellular immunity test involves measurements of the(More)
Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of(More)
Micromixing is a crucial step for biochemical reactions in microfluidic networks. A critical challenge is that the system containing micromixers needs numerous pumps, chambers, and channels not only for the micromixing but also for the biochemical reactions and detections. Thus, a simple and compatible design of the micromixer element for the system is(More)
A MEMS actuator and its controller are jointly optimized, both sequentially and simultaneously. The sequential problem is formulated to account for controllability by means of a constraint on the actuator's natural frequency. By varying the frequency constraint, sequential optimization generates a set of designs with significantly increased displacement,(More)
Current MEMS and microfluidic designs require external power sources and actuators, which principally limit such technology. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a number of microfluidic systems into which we can seamlessly integrate a biomolecular motor, kinesin, that transports microtubules by extracting chemical energy from its aqueous(More)