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l-Galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH; EC 1.3.2.3) is the last enzyme in the putative l-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathway of plants. Here, we show for the first time that the overexpression of GalLDH can increase AsA content in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells. To see the effect, we analyzed the properties of these AsA-overproducing(More)
This paper proposes a surgical simulation system that supports a COLLADA file format, which is a XML based 3D model data format and also proposes its extended file format to represent various information useful for the surgical simulation, i.e., several parameters for a spring model of the skin or the internal organs used as a haptic device parameters and(More)
This paper proposes a new cloth design system that provides intuitive operations, e.g., sewing, cutting and fitting a cloth in a virtual 3D space through direct manipulations using a force-feedback device. Advances of computer hardware technologies and results of virtual reality researches make it possible to develop virtual reality applications those(More)
The authors have already proposed a cloth design system that provides intuitive operations, e.g., sewing, cutting and fitting a cloth in a virtual 3D space through direct manipulations using a force-feedback device, phantom. However, a phantom device is very expensive and it is difficult for the end user to buy and use it. Also, many users are familiar with(More)
This paper proposes an extended COLLADA-based File Format to support various attributes of realistic objects for Virtual Reality (VR) applications. VR applications provide the user with virtual objects represented as 3D CG. To provide realistic virtual objects in a VR application, the developer of the VR application has to define many attributes of the(More)
There is increasing evidence that global warming affects the development of rice. High temperatures during ripening increase the ratio of undesirable chalky grains followed by deteriorating grain appearance quality. In order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the occurrence of white-back and basal-white chalky grains of brown rice, QTL(More)
A "discretely actuated robotic manipulator", or "D-ARM", is any member of a class of robotic manipulators powered by actuators that have only discrete positional stable states such as solenoids. One of the most significant kinematic phenomena of D-ARMs is the discreteness of both input range and end-effector frames. The main characteristics of D-ARMs are:(More)
This paper proposes a new communication system called <i>RoCoS</i> (<b>Ro</b>om-based <b>Co</b>mmunication <b>S</b>ystem) that allows multiple users to communicate with each other through their virtual 3D spaces called <i>rooms</i> located on the Internet. This system consists of two main sub-systems, i.e., <i>3D Messenger</i> and <i>Edit Tool. 3D(More)