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Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are well studied, yet the molecular mechanisms governing channel gating in the membrane remain unknown. We present two conformations of a Nav from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum reconstituted into lipid bilayers in one crystal at 9Å resolution based on electron crystallography. Despite a(More)
PSD-Zip45 (also named Homer 1c/Vesl-1L) is a synaptic scaffolding protein, which interacts with neurotransmitter receptors and other scaffolding proteins to target them into post-synaptic density (PSD), a specialized protein complex at the synaptic junction. Binding of the PSD-Zip45 to the receptors and scaffolding proteins results in colocalization and(More)
The C-terminal region of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) can bind to specific claudins, resulting in the disintegration of tight junctions (TJs) and an increase in the paracellular permeability across epithelial cell sheets. Here we present the structure of mammalian claudin-19 in complex with C-CPE at 3.7 Å resolution. The structure shows that(More)
Neural activity plays roles in the later stages of development of cortical excitatory neurons, including dendritic and axonal arborization, remodeling, and synaptogenesis. However, its role in earlier stages, such as migration and dendritogenesis, is less clear. Here we investigated roles of neural activity in the maturation of cortical neurons, using(More)
Prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) are homotetramers and are thought to inactivate through a single mechanism, named C-type inactivation. Here we report the voltage dependence and inactivation rate of the NaChBac channel from Bacillus halodurans, the first identified prokaryotic Na(V), as well as of three new homologues cloned from Bacillus(More)
Most tetrameric channels have cytosolic domains to regulate their functions, including channel inactivation. Here we show that the cytosolic C-terminal region of NavSulP, a prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel cloned from Sulfitobacter pontiacus, accelerates channel inactivation. The crystal structure of the C-terminal region of NavSulP grafted into the(More)
Prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) form homotetramers with each subunit contributing six transmembrane α-helices (S1-S6). Helices S5 and S6 form the ion-conducting pore, and helices S1-S4 function as the voltage sensor with helix S4 thought to be the essential element for voltage-dependent activation. Although the crystal structures have(More)
Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) in voltage-gated ion channels are thought to regulate the probability that a channel adopts an open conformation by moving vertically in the lipid bilayer. Here we characterized the movement of the VSDs of the prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel, NaChBac. Substitution of residue T110, which is located on the extracellular(More)
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