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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are activated in response to various extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and environmental stresses. A MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), termed ASK1, was identified that activated two different subgroups of MAP kinase kinases (MAPKK), SEK1 (or MKK4) and MKK3/MAPKK6 (or MKK6), which in turn(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved eukaryotic signaling module that converts receptor signals into various outputs. MAPK is activated through phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is first activated by MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). A genetic selection based on a MAPK pathway in yeast was used to identify a mouse protein(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates many aspects of cellular function. A member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family, TAK1, was previously identified as a mediator in the signaling pathway of TGF-beta superfamily members. The yeast two-hybrid system has now revealed two human proteins, termed TAB1 and TAB2(More)
Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are well studied, yet the molecular mechanisms governing channel gating in the membrane remain unknown. We present two conformations of a Nav from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum reconstituted into lipid bilayers in one crystal at 9Å resolution based on electron crystallography. Despite a(More)
Intracellular signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases in mammalian cells results in activation of a signal cascade that includes the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ras and the protein kinases Raf, MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase], and MAPK. MAPK activation that is dependent on the(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated in response to a variety of stimuli through a protein kinase cascade that results in their phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine residues. The molecular nature of this cascade is just beginning to emerge. Here we report the isolation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a functional analog of(More)
Most tetrameric channels have cytosolic domains to regulate their functions, including channel inactivation. Here we show that the cytosolic C-terminal region of NavSulP, a prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel cloned from Sulfitobacter pontiacus, accelerates channel inactivation. The crystal structure of the C-terminal region of NavSulP grafted into the(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) protein Tat is a potent activator of virus gene expression. Tat functions through a sequence known as TAR, located immediately downstream of the transcription start site in the long terminal repeat. Several observations suggest that cellular factors cooperate with Tat in the overall transactivating process. We have(More)
Prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) are homotetramers and are thought to inactivate through a single mechanism, named C-type inactivation. Here we report the voltage dependence and inactivation rate of the NaChBac channel from Bacillus halodurans, the first identified prokaryotic Na(V), as well as of three new homologues cloned from Bacillus(More)
PSD-Zip45 (also named Homer 1c/Vesl-1L) is a synaptic scaffolding protein, which interacts with neurotransmitter receptors and other scaffolding proteins to target them into post-synaptic density (PSD), a specialized protein complex at the synaptic junction. Binding of the PSD-Zip45 to the receptors and scaffolding proteins results in colocalization and(More)