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5-formyluracil (5-foU) is a potentially mutagenic lesion of thymine produced in DNA by ionizing radiation and various chemical oxidants. The elucidation of repair mechanisms for 5-foU will yield important insights into the biological consequences of the lesion. Recently, we reported that 5-foU is recognized and removed from DNA by Escherichia coli enzymes(More)
5-Formyluracil (fU) is a major thymine lesion produced by reactive oxygen radicals and photosensitized oxidation. Although this residue is a potentially mutagenic lesion and is removed by several base excision repair enzymes, it is unknown whether fU is the substrate of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we analyzed the binding specificity of(More)
Many oxidizing agents induce G-C to T-A and G-C to C-G transversions, and the frequency largely depends on the oxidative conditions. Guanine is the most oxidizable base among natural bases. The typical oxidative lesion product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is responsible for G-C to T-A transversion but not for G-C to C-G transversion, and 8-oxoG is more readily(More)
We have designed a doubly thiazole orange labeled nucleoside showing high fluorescence intensity for a hybrid with the target DNA and effective quenching for a single-stranded state. Knowing how much the fluorescence emission and quenching of this probe depend on the probe sequence and why there is such a sequence dependence is important for effective probe(More)
The oxidation and deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA generates a base-pair between 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU) and guanine. 5hmU normally forms a base-pair with adenine. Therefore, the conversion of 5mC to 5hmU is a potential pathway for the generation of 5mC to T transitions. Mammalian cells have high levels of activity of 5hmU-DNA glycosylase,(More)
The Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) oncogene contains an N-terminal transcription activation domain and a C-terminal RNA-binding domain. Although the EWS activation domain is a potent transactivation domain that is required for the oncogenic activity of several EWS fusion proteins, the normal role of intact EWS is poorly characterized because little is known about(More)
DNA is constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Damaged DNA can cause mutations, which may increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases. G:C-C:G transversions are caused by various oxidative stresses. 2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz), guanidinohydantoin (Gh)/iminoallantoin (Ia) and spiro-imino-dihydantoin (Sp) are(More)
Photoirradiation in the presence of riboflavin led to guanine oxidation and the formation of imidazolone. Meanwhile, riboflavin itself was degraded by ultraviolet light A (UV-A) and visible light (VIS) radiation, and the end product was lumichrome. VIS radiation in the presence of riboflavin oxidized guanine similarly to UV-A radiation. Although UV-A(More)