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We investigated the properties of glycine-induced responses in Cajal-Retzius cells, a neuronal cell type essential for the establishment of neocortical lamination. Whole-cell and gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings were performed on visually identified Cajal-Retzius cells in tangential slices from neonatal rat cortex (postnatal days 0-3). With a(More)
Melatonin, which plays an important role in circadian rhythm regulation, is highly potent endogenous free radical scavenger and antioxidant. To clarify the neuroprotective effects of melatonin as a free radical scavenger, we recorded changes in synaptic potentials and monitored the generation of superoxide (O)(2)(-) (using hydroethidine) in the CA1(More)
In vertebrate evolution, the brain exhibits both conserved and unique morphological features in each animal group. Thus, the molecular program of nervous system development is expected to have experienced various changes through evolution. In this review, we discuss recent data from the agnathan lamprey (jawless vertebrate) together with available(More)
In gnathostomes, the adenohypophysis, a component of the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex, is believed to develop through hierarchically organized epigenetic interactions based primarily on the topographical relationships between tissues. From a comparison of developmental processes and gene expression patterns of pituitary-related genes between the agnathan(More)
The alternatively spliced isoform of the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain B (MHC-B) with an insert of 21 amino acids at the 50- to 20-kDa junction of the globular region of myosin has been demonstrated to be expressed specifically in the central nervous system (CNS) in chicken. To explore the role of this B2 inserted isoform (MHC-B(B2)), immunoblot and(More)
In order to study the signal transmission from pineal photoreceptors to luminosity (achromatic)-type ganglion cells of the lamprey, Lampetra japonica, the electrical activity of these cell groups was investigated using intra- and extracellular electrodes. By intracellular recording, it was shown that the photoreceptor cells responded to flashes of light(More)
RFamide (RFa) peptides play various important roles in the central nervous system in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, there is no evidence of the existence of any RFamide peptide in the brain of hagfish, one of the oldest lineages of vertebrates. In this study, we sought to identify novel RFamide peptides from the brains of hagfish (Paramyxine(More)
To identify the characteristics of the oscillator located in the pineal organ, we examined the effects of temperature and light on melatonin secretion rhythm using pineal organs in cultures. At 20 degrees C, the melatonin rhythm was obvious: low secretion during the daytime and high during the nighttime. When the temperature was lowered from 20 to 10(More)
To clarify the roles of prolactin (PRL) and GH in the control of the immune system, the effects of environmental salinity, hypophysectomy, and PRL and GH administration on several immune functions were examined in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW) did not alter plasma levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and(More)
The evolution of the turtle shell has long been one of the central debates in comparative anatomy. The turtle shell consists of dorsal and ventral parts: the carapace and plastron, respectively. The basic structure of the carapace comprises vertebrae and ribs. The pectoral girdle of turtles sits inside the carapace or the rib cage, in striking contrast to(More)