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A critical component of laboratory surveillance for measles is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet), provides for standardized testing in 183 countries and supports genetic characterization of currently circulating strains of measles viruses. The(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory infection in infants, and no vaccine is available. In this report, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccines, expressing the RSV G or F protein of subgroup A (MVAIK/RSV/G or F), were investigated as a RSV vaccine candidate. MVAIK/RSV/G or F had the original ts phenotype and expressed RSV/G(More)
Rubella virus is the causative agent of rubella. The symptoms are usually mild, and characterized by a maculopapular rash and fever. However, rubella infection in pregnant women sometimes can result in the birth of infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Global efforts have been made to reduce and eliminate CRS. Although a reverse(More)
The full-length cDNA corresponding to the mRNA of the fusion (F) protein of the Yamagata-1 strain of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) virus was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The F gene was composed of 2369 nucleotides and contained a single large coding region, which is located between two noncoding regions. The(More)
The suspected measles case definition captures rubella cases. Therefore, measles surveillance will be improved in the course of the control and eventual elimination of rubella transmission. One aspect of rubella control, virologic surveillance, is reviewed here. A systematic nomenclature for rubella viruses (RVs) based on 13 genotypes has been established(More)
UNLABELLED Proteolytic cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein is essential for influenza A virus (IAV) to acquire infectivity. This process is mediated by a host cell protease(s) in vivo. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 is expressed in the respiratory tract and is capable of activating a variety of respiratory viruses, including(More)
Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB) (2 micrograms), each supplemented with a trace amount of cholera toxin (CT) (0.02-20 ng), were examined for the adjuvant effect on antibody (Ab) response against influenza inactivated HA (haemagglutinin) vaccine in Balb/c mice. Each mouse received a primary intranasal (i.n.)(More)
Here, we provide direct evidence that the receptor-binding site of measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin protein itself forms an effective conserved neutralizing epitope (CNE). Several receptor-interacting residues constitute the CNE. Thus, viral escape from neutralization has to be associated with loss of receptor-binding activity. Since interactions with both(More)
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported(More)
Sero-epidemiological studies are required to identify populations susceptible to measles. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is no longer sensitive enough to confirm immunity to measles, and at present the particle agglutination (PA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) are employed. The most reliable method is the neutralization test(More)