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The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and(More)
Exogenous dietary fat can induce obesity and promote diabetes, but endogenous fat production is not thought to affect skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an antecedent of metabolic disease. Unexpectedly, the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) was increased in the skeletal muscle of mice with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Skeletal(More)
OBJECTIVE Phosphorylation of two members of the TBC1 domain family of proteins, Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160, also known as TBC1D4) and TBC1D1, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation (measured using the phospho-Akt substrate [PAS] antibody) of AS160 and TBC1D1 appears to occur in(More)
SHORT TITLE: B2 receptor of bradykinin, exercise and insulin sensitivity 2 Summary Bradykinin can enhance skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU), and exercise increases both bradykinin production and muscle insulin sensitivity, but bradykinin's relationship with post-exercise insulin action is uncertain. Our primary aim was to determine if the B2 receptor of(More)
Skeletal muscle mitochondria are highly dynamic and are capable of tremendous expansion to meet cellular energetic demands. Such proliferation in mitochondrial mass requires a synchronized supply of enzymes and structural phospholipids. While transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial enzymes has been extensively studied, there is limited information on(More)
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early defect in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lipid overload induces insulin resistance in muscle and alters the composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle phospholipid metabolism regulates systemic glucose metabolism, we perturbed choline/ethanolamine(More)
OBJECTIVE Sarcolipin (SLN) regulates muscle energy expenditure through its action on sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA) pump. It is unknown whether SLN-dependent respiration has relevance to human obesity, but whole-transcriptome gene expression profiling revealed that SLN was more highly expressed in myocytes from individuals with severe(More)
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