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The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and(More)
Exogenous dietary fat can induce obesity and promote diabetes, but endogenous fat production is not thought to affect skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an antecedent of metabolic disease. Unexpectedly, the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) was increased in the skeletal muscle of mice with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Skeletal(More)
In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the association of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), as well as the activity of its binding protein (4E-BP1) and the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) after a single bout of rat hindlimb muscle contractile activity elicited by high-frequency(More)
OBJECTIVE Phosphorylation of two members of the TBC1 domain family of proteins, Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160, also known as TBC1D4) and TBC1D1, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation (measured using the phospho-Akt substrate [PAS] antibody) of AS160 and TBC1D1 appears to occur in(More)
A single exercise bout can increase insulin-independent glucose transport immediately postexercise and insulin-dependent glucose transport (GT) for several hours postexercise. Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and TBC1D1 are paralog Rab GTPase-activating proteins that have been proposed to contribute to these exercise effects. Previous research demonstrated(More)
The cellular mechanisms whereby prior exercise enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT) are not well understood. Previous studies suggested that a prolonged increase in phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) may be important for the postexercise increase in insulin sensitivity. In the current study, the effects of in vivo exercise and(More)
Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), the most distal insulin signaling protein known to be important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, becomes phosphorylated with skeletal muscle contraction. Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) have been implicated in regulating AS160 and/or glucose transport.(More)
SHORT TITLE: B2 receptor of bradykinin, exercise and insulin sensitivity 2 Summary Bradykinin can enhance skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU), and exercise increases both bradykinin production and muscle insulin sensitivity, but bradykinin's relationship with post-exercise insulin action is uncertain. Our primary aim was to determine if the B2 receptor of(More)
Skeletal muscle mitochondria are highly dynamic and are capable of tremendous expansion to meet cellular energetic demands. Such proliferation in mitochondrial mass requires a synchronized supply of enzymes and structural phospholipids. While transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial enzymes has been extensively studied, there is limited information on(More)
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early defect in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lipid overload induces insulin resistance in muscle and alters the composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle phospholipid metabolism regulates systemic glucose metabolism, we perturbed choline/ethanolamine(More)