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We examined how the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) affects the distribution of electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement sensitivity. We used concentric spheres and realistic head models to investigate the difference between computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) models that exclude the CSF layer. The cortical EEG sensitivity distributions(More)
We present the four key areas of research-preprocessing, the volume conductor, the forward problem, and the inverse problem-that affect the performance of EEG and MEG source imaging. In each key area we identify prominent approaches and methodologies that have open issues warranting further investigation within the community, challenges associated with(More)
The skull is a tissue with a widely controversial range of conductivity values. This article correlates live skull conductivity measurements with post mortem conductivity measurements with a scaling factor ranging between 2.5 and 4. The scaling factor is validated by a mathematical model that determines the skull conductivity using saline and cerebrospinal(More)
Bioelectric source measurements are influenced by the measurement location as well as the conductive properties of the tissues. Volume conductor effects such as the poorly conducting bones or the moderately conducting skin are known to affect the measurement precision and accuracy of the surface electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. This paper(More)
We examined the effect of electrode contact size on EEG measurement sensitivity distributions. We used concentric spheres and realistic head models to evaluate electrode diameters of 1 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm. We used the half sensitivity volume (HSV) to evaluate the results. The spherical model results show that the farther the electrode pairs are spaced(More)
BACKGROUND The electroencephalography (EEG) is an attractive and a simple technique to measure the brain activity. It is attractive due its excellent temporal resolution and simple due to its non-invasiveness and sensor design. However, the spatial resolution of EEG is reduced due to the low conducting skull. In this paper, we compute the potential(More)
— It is generally believed that the first experiment on bimetallic electric stimulation of living body was made by Luigi Galvani with frog leg in 1786. Galvani however succeeded to produce electric stimulation of the frog leg already in 1781 with electricity produced with electric machine. It has been suggested by Rowbottom and Susskind that the first(More)
Volume conductor head models contain thin tissue layers, some of which have highly contrasting conductivity values relative to neighboring tissues. We expound the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the six cortical layers of the gray matter. The dual nature of the CSF competes with the well-known shunting behavior of the skull. The incorporation of the six ultra(More)
—The electroencephalogram (EEG) generated by cere-bral cortex can be recorded far away from the cortex, analogous to the electrocardiogram (ECG) that can be recorded far from the heart. ECG is often seen as an artifact in EEG recordings. In this paper we demonstrate that the burst suppression pattern of EEG, which is generated by the cerebral cortex, can be(More)
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