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BACKGROUND & AIMS Bacterial wall products play an important role in the activation of immune and nonimmune cells of the intestinal mucosa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 have been identified as signaling receptors activated by bacterial wall components. METHODS Expression of TLRs in human intestinal mucosa obtained by endoscopy and surgery was(More)
Bacterial pathogens exploit a huge range of niches within their hosts. Many pathogens can invade non-phagocytic cells and survive within a membrane-bound compartment. However, only a small number of bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp., can gain access to and(More)
Escape into the host cell cytosol following invasion of mammalian cells is a common strategy used by invasive pathogens. This requires membrane rupture of the vesicular or vacuolar compartment formed around the bacteria after uptake into the host cell. The mechanism of pathogen-induced disassembly of the vacuolar membrane is poorly understood. We(More)
  • Katrina Ray
  • Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • 2013
Liver cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality, with >80% of liver cancer cases classified as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite surgical and medical interventions being available, the prognosis for patients with HCC is ultimately poor —mostly as a result of late diagnosis. Now, findings from two research papers add new tools(More)
The key interaction in the adaptive immune system's response to pathogenic challenge occurs at the interface between APCs and T cells. Families of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules function in association with the cytokine microenvironment to orchestrate appropriate T cell activation programs. Recent data have demonstrated that the Notch receptor and(More)
  • Katrina Ray
  • Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • 2014
fibrosis observed. According to the findings, HSCs were the crucial contributor to fibrogenesis in the liver in many settings: chemicalinduced liver injury (induction with either carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide); cholestatic liver disease (in bile-duct ligation, diet and genetic models); and NASH (methionine–choline-deficient diet model). Notably,(More)