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Bromine atoms are believed to play a central role in the depletion of surface-level ozone in the Arctic at polar sunrise. Br2, BrCl, and HOBr have been hypothesized as bromine atom precursors, and there is evidence for chlorine atom precursors as well, but these species have not been measured directly. We report here measurements of Br2, BrCl, and Cl2 made(More)
We investigated the potential role of the alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptor in regulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol. To accomplish this, we developed 3-propoxy-beta-carboline hydrochloride (3-PBC), a mixed agonist-antagonist benzodiazepine site ligand with binding selectivity at the alpha1 receptor. We then tested the capacity of 3-PBC to block(More)
Two experiments examined how 5- and 10-year-old children revise their category representations when exposed to exemplars that are congruent or incongruent with existing knowledge. During training children were presented with exemplars containing features that were congruent or incongruent with children's social stereotypes together with a stereotype-neutral(More)
Unit activity of the cingulate cortex and the anteroventral (AV) nucleus of the thalamus in rabbits was recorded during reversal training following differential conditioning of a locomotory (wheel rotation) avoidance response. The positive and negative conditional stimuli (CS+ and CS-) were pure tones (1 kHz and 8 kHz), and the unconditional stimulus was(More)
It has been hypothesized that alcohol addiction is mediated, at least in part, by specific gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors within the ventral pallidum (VP). Among the potential GABA(A) receptor isoforms regulating alcohol-seeking behaviors within the VP, the GABA(A) alpha1 receptor subtype (GABA(A1)) appears pre-eminent. In the present study,(More)
Recent studies have implicated the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) as a potential brain substrate for mediating drug-related behaviors. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated that reciprocal projections exist from the BST to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopamine reward substrate proposed to play a role in alcohol abuse. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has implicated the alpha5-containing GABAA receptors of the hippocampus in the reinforcing properties of alcohol. In the present study, a selective GABAA alpha5 benzodiazepine inverse agonist (e.g., RY 023) was used in a series of in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the significance of the alpha5-receptor in the(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that GABA(A) and opioid receptors within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) regulate ethanol (EtOH), but not sucrose-maintained responding. To accomplish this, betaCCt, a mixed benzodiazepine (BDZ) agonist-antagonist with binding selectivity at the alpha1 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor, and the(More)
The present study investigated the role of the alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors in the neurobehavioral actions of alcohol. In Experiment 1, mice lacking the alpha1 subunit (alpha1 (-/-)) were tested for their capacity to initiate operant-lever press responding for alcohol or sucrose. Alcohol intake in the home cage was also measured. In Experiment 2, the(More)
Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the anteroventral (AV) nucleus of the thalamus given after training impaired retention performance (extinction and reacquisition) of rabbits in a differential avoidance conditioning task. In addition, the lesions abolished the excitatory, discriminative multiple-unit discharges that had developed in the cingulate and(More)