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A clear relationship exists between visceral obesity and type 2 diabetes, whereas subcutaneous obesity is comparatively benign. Here, we show that adipocyte-specific deletion of the coregulatory protein PRDM16 caused minimal effects on classical brown fat but markedly inhibited beige adipocyte function in subcutaneous fat following cold exposure or(More)
Exercise training benefits many organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Using the recently identified isoform of PGC1-α (PGC1-α4) as a discovery tool, we report the identification of meteorin-like (Metrnl), a circulating factor that is induced in muscle after exercise and in adipose tissue upon cold(More)
Hypoxia, or low oxygen tension, is a major regulator of tumor development and aggressiveness. However, how cancer cells adapt to hypoxia and communicate with their surrounding microenvironment during tumor development remain important questions. Here, we show that secreted vesicles with exosome characteristics mediate hypoxia-dependent intercellular(More)
Polyamines are essential for tumor cell growth, and the polyamine pathway represents an attractive target for cancer treatment. Several polyamine transport proteins have been cloned and characterized in bacteria and yeast cells; however, the mechanism of polyamine entry into mammalian cells remains poorly defined, although a role for proteoglycans has been(More)
Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2(More)
The role of exosomes in cancer can be inferred from the observation that they transfer tumor cell derived genetic material and signaling proteins, resulting in e.g. increased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the membrane transport mechanisms and the signaling events involved in the uptake of these virus-like particles remain ill-defined. We now(More)
Extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated intercellular transfer of signaling proteins and nucleic acids has recently been implicated in the development of cancer and other pathological conditions; however, the mechanism of EV uptake and how this may be targeted remain as important questions. Here, we provide evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs;(More)
Thermogenic UCP1-positive cells, which include brown and beige adipocytes, transform chemical energy into heat and increase whole-body energy expenditure. Using a ribosomal profiling approach, we present a comprehensive molecular description of brown and beige gene expression from multiple fat depots in vivo. This UCP1-TRAP data set demonstrates striking(More)
Capsazepine is known as a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV(1)) antagonist that inhibits bronchoconstriction evoked in animals by TRPV(1) agonists. In this study, effects of capsazepine and chemically related analogues, so called capsazepinoids, were examined in vitro on contractile effects in human small airway preparations.(More)
Experimental studies have established that the sulfated glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate act as co-receptors of cytokines and growth factors that drive the malignant cell phenotype and the remodelling of the surrounding tumor stroma. However, the clinical relevance of these studies remains ill-defined. The present study(More)