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Uniparental chromosome elimination occurs in several interspecific hybrids of plants. We studied the mechanism underlying selective elimination of the paternal chromosomes during the early development of Hordeum vulgare × Hordeum bulbosum embryos. The following conclusions regarding the role of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENH3) in the(More)
B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genomes of numerous species. To test whether the transcriptome of a host is influenced by Bs, we looked for differences in expression in response to additional Bs. Comparative complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism experiments resulted in the identification of 16 putative(More)
Aurora is an evolutionary conserved protein kinase family involved in monitoring of chromosome segregation via phosphorylation of different substrates. In plants, however, the involvement of Aurora proteins in meiosis and in sensing microtubule attachment remains to be proven, although the downstream components leading to the targeting of spindle assembly(More)
Holocentric chromosomes occur in a number of independent eukaryotic lineages. They form holokinetic kinetochores along the entire poleward chromatid surfaces, and owing to this alternative chromosome structure, species with holocentric chromosomes cannot use the two-step loss of cohesion during meiosis typical for monocentric chromosomes. Here we show that(More)
The structure of holocentric chromosomes was analyzed in mitotic cells of Luzula elegans. Light and scanning electron microscopy observations provided evidence for the existence of a longitudinal groove along each sister chromatid. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENH3, colocalized with this groove and with microtubule attachment sites. The(More)
Microgametogenesis in angiosperms results in two structurally and functionally different cells, one generative cell, which subsequently forms the sperm cells, and the vegetative cell. We analysed the chromatin properties of both types of nuclei after first and second pollen mitosis in rye (Secale cereale). The condensed chromatin of generative nuclei is(More)
In the grass tribe Poeae a small group of taxa occur with an exceptionally low chromosome number of 2n=2x=4 belonging to the closely related genera Colpodium and Zingeria. To understand the formation of polyploids in this group we analyzed the evolution of allohexaploid Zingeriakochii (2n=12) and its presumable ancestral species. Genomic insitu(More)
In higher plants, the large-scale structure of monocentric chromosomes consists of distinguishable eu- and heterochromatic regions, the proportions and organization of which depend on a species' genome size. To determine whether the same interplay is maintained for holocentric chromosomes, we investigated the distribution of repetitive sequences and(More)
Based on the analysis of 20 different monocot and eudicot species, we propose that the centromeric distribution of the phosphorylated histone H2AThr120 is evolutionary highly conserved across species with mono- and holocentric chromosomes. Therefore, antibodies recognizing the phosphorylated threonine 120 of the histone H2A can serve as a universal marker(More)
B chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary components of the genome and do not confer any advantages on the organisms that harbor them. The maintenance of Bs in natural populations is possible by their transmission at higher than Mendelian frequencies. Although drive is the key for understanding B chromosomes, the mechanism is largely unknown. We provide direct(More)