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Combining mass spectrometric tools, a total of 47 in vitro metabolites of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins 1 and 2 (DTX1 and DTX2), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid1 (AZA1), and pectenotoxin 2 (PTX2) could be detected and confirmed after an incubation with rat liver S9-mix. In a first step, liquid chromatography (LC) combined with tandem mass spectrometry(More)
No evidence for phase I metabolites of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was given using HepaRG cells and different liver tissue fractions when studying metabolic conversion. Although the application of ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, led to a decreased cytotoxicity of CYN, no metabolites were detected applying high resolution mass spectrometry.(More)
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through(More)
The biotoxin okadaic acid (OA), produced by dinoflagellates in marine environment, can accumulate in sponges and shellfish. Consumption of contaminated shellfish induces acute toxic effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. CYP3A4, one of the most important human xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, is supposed to be involved in the(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin associated with human and animal poisonings. Due to its toxicity in combination with its widespread occurrence, the development of reliable methods for selective, sensitive detection and accurate quantification is mandatory. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using stable(More)
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