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About a fifth of the human gene pool belongs largely either to Indo-European or Dravidic speaking people inhabiting the Indian peninsula. The 'Caucasoid share' in their gene pool is thought to be related predominantly to the Indo-European speakers. A commonly held hypothesis, albeit not the only one, suggests a massive Indo-Aryan invasion to India some(More)
BACKGROUND Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be(More)
Here we discuss how our understanding of the peopling of Europe by modern humans may be improved by results which can be obtained in the investigation of genetic lineages of populations living in Anatolia and the Trans-Caucasus: Turks, Armenians, Georgians and Ossetes (Fig. 25.1). These four populations occupy a geographic area commonly believed to have(More)
A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as " X1 " and " X2. " The first is restricted to the populations of North and(More)
The topology of the network of western Eurasian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineage clusters in the context of their expansion and spread in this geographic area is analysed. Special attention is devoted to the inner nods of the reconstructed median network tree, ancestral to mtDNA lineage clusters H and V, to the Caucasus and Trans-Caucasus area populations(More)
Most maternal lineages of present-day Indians derive from a common ancestor in mtDNA haplogroup M that split into Indian, eastern Asian, Papuan, and Australian subsets 40,000-60,000 mtDNA-years ago. The second major component in Indian maternal heredity lines traces back to the split of haplogroup U into Indian, western Eurasian and northern African(More)
Sex ratio is an indicator of population health as unexpected biases may indicate potential threats. We studied nestling sex ratio in Black Stork Ciconia nigra populations in order to check potential biases and differences along east–west and north–south gradient across its distribution range in Europe. We also studied variation between years, and checked(More)