Learn More
The molecular organization of presynaptic active zones during calcium influx-triggered neurotransmitter release is the focus of intense investigation. The Drosophila coiled-coil domain protein Bruchpilot (BRP) was observed in donut-shaped structures centered at active zones of neuromuscular synapses by using subdiffraction resolution STED (stimulated(More)
Most plasmalemmal proteins organize in submicrometer-sized clusters whose architecture and dynamics are still enigmatic. With syntaxin 1 as an example, we applied a combination of far-field optical nanoscopy, biochemistry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, and simulations to show that clustering can be explained by(More)
Time lapse fluorescence imaging has become one of the most important approaches in neurobiological research. In particular, both confocal and two-photon microscopy have been used to study activity-dependent changes in synaptic morphology. However, the diffraction-limited resolution of light microscopy is often inadequate, forcing researchers to complement(More)
We report stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy with continuous wave (CW) laser beams. Lateral fluorescence confinement from the scanning focal spot delivered a resolution of 29-60 nm in the focal plane, corresponding to a 5-8-fold improvement over the diffraction barrier. Axial spot confinement increased the axial resolution by(More)
Synaptic transmission is mediated by neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles and released by exocytosis upon activation. The vesicle membrane is then retrieved by endocytosis, and synaptic vesicles are regenerated and re-filled with neurotransmitter. Although many aspects of vesicle recycling are understood, the fate of the vesicles after(More)
Lens-based optical microscopy failed to discern fluorescent features closer than 200 nm for decades, but the recent breaking of the diffraction resolution barrier by sequentially switching the fluorescence capability of adjacent features on and off is making nanoscale imaging routine. Reported fluorescence nanoscopy variants switch these features either(More)
It is difficult to investigate the mechanisms that mediate long-term changes in synapse function because synapses are small and deeply embedded inside brain tissue. Although recent fluorescence nanoscopy techniques afford improved resolution, they have so far been restricted to dissociated cells or tissue surfaces. However, to study synapses under realistic(More)
In the plasma membrane, syntaxin 1 and syntaxin 4 clusters define sites at which secretory granules and caveolae fuse, respectively. It is widely believed that lipid phases are mandatory for cluster formation, as cluster integrity depends on cholesterol. Here we report that the native lipid environment is not sufficient for correct syntaxin 1 clustering and(More)
Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) supramolecular aggregates that have hitherto only been accessible to examination by electron microscopy were imaged with stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy, providing resolution beyond limits of diffraction of classical wide-field or confocal microscopes. We examined a Chinese hamster ovary cell liner(More)
During vertebrate development, oligodendrocytes wrap their plasma membrane around axons to produce myelin, a specialized membrane highly enriched in galactosylceramide (GalC) and cholesterol. Here, we studied the formation of myelin membrane sheets in a neuron-glia co-culture system. We applied different microscopy techniques to visualize lipid packing and(More)