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Perinatal hypoxia is a major cause of neurodevelopmental deficits. Neuronal migration patterns are particularly sensitive to perinatal hypoxia/ischemia and are associated with the clinical deficits. The rat model of hypoxia/ischemia at P7 mimics that of perinatal injury in humans. Before assessing the effects of postnatal injury on brain development, it is(More)
Deposition of phosphorylated SNCA (also known as α-synuclein) in cutaneous nerve fibres has been shown pre- and post-mortem in Parkinson's disease. Thus far, no pre-mortem studies investigating the presence of phosphorylated SNCA in skin sympathetic nerve fibres of multiple system atrophy, another synucleinopathy, have been conducted. In this in vivo study,(More)
BACKGROUND Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies (HIV-SN) are a common complication of HIV infection. The pathogenesis is unknown and the treatment very limited. Gabapentin (GBP) is effective in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia and its effectiveness on painful HIV-SN has been reported anecdotally. DESIGN Multicenter,(More)
Despite the clinical need, there are no therapeutic compounds available to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. In part, this may be due to a lack of sensitive measures of nerve growth. Here, we describe a novel approach of measuring collateral sprouting of epidermal nerve fibers (ENF) in human subjects and describe the effect of the neuroimmunophilin(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the mean survival time in the AIDS stage to sometimes more than 10 years. Five different groups of antiretroviral medications are known, of which integrase inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists represent the newest and most modern substances. The long AIDS survival time implies that side effects and(More)
Lyme disease (LD) is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and displays different stages, including localized, early disseminated, and persistent infection, all of which are associated with profound inflammatory reactions in the host. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by B. burgdorferi is mainly mediated by outer surface proteins interacting with TLR-2/TLR-1(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral atrophy following herpes simplex encephalitis has formerly been described. We aimed to quantify atrophy after encephalitis of various causes. Additional objectives were to define which initial or long-term clinical factors correlate with volume loss and to search for any correlate in global clinical outcome measures. (More)
The TOR pathway mediates nutrient-responsive regulation of cell growth and metabolism in animals. TOR Complex 1 activity depends, amongst other things, on amino acid availability. MAP4K3 was recently implicated in amino-acid signaling in cell culture. We report here the physiological characterization of MAP4K3 mutant flies. Flies lacking MAP4K3 have reduced(More)
Neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by focal regions of demyelination and axonal loss associated with infiltrating T cells. However, the role of activated T cells in causing neuronal injury remains unclear. CD4 and CD8 T cells were isolated from normal donors and polyclonally activated using plate-bound anti-CD3 and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated distal-symmetric neuropathy (HIV-DSP) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection. The pathophysiology of HIV-DSP is poorly understood and no treatment is available for this entity. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the principal sites of neuronal damage and are associated with reactive mononuclear(More)