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To establish the role of B cells and antibodies in destroying filariae, mice lacking mature B cells and therefore unable to produce antibodies were used. Litomosoides sigmodontis offers a good opportunity for this study because it is the only filarial species that completes its life cycle in mice. Its development was compared in B-cell-deficient mice(More)
 The physiological properties of transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with decreased or increased transport capacities of the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) were compared in order to investigate the extent to which the TPT controls metabolic fluxes in wild-type tobacco. For this purpose, tobacco lines with an antisense(More)
The circadian clock is a timekeeping mechanism that enables anticipation of daily environmental changes. In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the circadian system is a multiloop series of interlocked transcription-translation feedbacks. Several genes have been arranged in these oscillation loops, but the position of the core-clock gene ELF4 in this network(More)
Litomosoides sigmodontis is the only filaria which develops from infective larvae into microfilaria-producing adults in immunocompetent laboratory mice. In this study we report that interleukin-4 knockout (IL-4 KO) mice have an up to 100-fold-higher and a significantly prolonged microfilaremia compared to wild-type BALB/c mice, as well as 20 times more(More)
In this paper experimental data from grass fermentation and simulation results with the Anaerobic Digestion Model (ADM) No. 1 are described. Two laboratory reactors were operated under mesophilic conditions with volumetric loading rates in between 0.3 and 2.5 kg(VS)/(m(3) x d). Two different kinds of grass silage were used as substrates, resulting in an(More)
Nitrate assimilation in autotrophs provides most of the reduced nitrogen on earth. In eukaryotes, reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalyzed by the molybdenum-containing NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1-3). In addition to the molybdenum center, NR contains iron-heme and flavin adenine dinucleotide as redox cofactors involved in an internal(More)
This work investigates the nature of two distinct response patterns in a probabilistic truth table evaluation task, in which people estimate the probability of a conditional on the basis of frequencies of the truth table cases. The conditional-probability pattern reflects an interpretation of conditionals as expressing a conditional probability. The(More)
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing sulfite oxidase (SO) from Arabidopsis thaliana has recently been identified and biochemically characterized. The enzyme is found in peroxisomes and believed to detoxify excess sulfite that is produced during sulfur assimilation, or due to air pollution. Plant SO (PSO) is homodimeric and homologous to animal SO, but(More)
We report the discovery of a new monomeric peptide that reduces body weight and diabetic complications in rodent models of obesity by acting as an agonist at three key metabolically-related peptide hormone receptors: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon receptors. This triple agonist demonstrates(More)