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The INCA (Integrated Nitrogen CAtchment) model is a semi-distributed, dynamic nitrogen model which simulates nitrogen fluxes in catchments. Sources of nitrogen can be atmospheric deposition, the terrestrial environment or direct discharges. The model can simulate nitrogen processes in six land use classes. There are three components included; the(More)
We studied the influence of human activities and climate change on water quantity and quality. Human activities included methods of agricultural policy, i.e. land use and management practices. Finland started to follow EU’s agricultural policy in 1995. In this study our main objective was to find out whether the original targets of the Finnish(More)
We report on preparatory work to develop a virtual laboratory for ecosystem services, ESLab, and demonstrate its pilot application in southern Finland. The themes included in the pilot are related to biodiversity conservation, climate mitigation and eutrophication mitigation. ESLab is a research environment for ecosystem services (ES), which considers ES(More)
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