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A new version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments model (INCA) was developed and tested using flow and streamwater nitrate concentration data collected from the River Kennet during 1998. INCA is a process-based model of the nitrogen cycle in the plant/soil and in-stream systems. The model simulates the nitrogen export from different land-use types(More)
Microbial processes in soil are moisture, nutrient and temperature dependent and, consequently, accurate calculation of soil temperature is important for modelling nitrogen processes. Microbial activity in soil occurs even at sub-zero temperatures so that, in northern latitudes, a method to calculate soil temperature under snow cover and in frozen soils is(More)
As a first step in applying the Integrated Nitrogen model for CAtchments (INCA) to the Simojoki river basin (3160 km 2), this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the river during the 1980s and 1990s. The model application utilised the GIS land-use and forest classification of Finland together with(More)
Nutrient leaching from agricultural production is still recognised as a major environmental problem in Finland. To estimate agricultural nitrogen loading under changing land-use and climate conditions, the Integrated Nitrogen Model for Catchments (INCA) was applied in Savijoki, a small (15.4 km 2) agricultural catchment, which represents the intensively(More)
Pathogens are an ongoing issue for catchment water management and quantifying their transport, loss and potential impacts at key locations, such as water abstractions for public supply and bathing sites, is an important aspect of catchment and coastal management. The Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) has been adapted to model the sources and sinks of(More)
The INCA (Integrated Nitrogen CAtchment) model is a semi-distributed, dynamic nitrogen model which simulates nitrogen fluxes in catchments. Sources of nitrogen can be atmospheric deposition, the terrestrial environment or direct discharges. The model can simulate nitrogen processes in six land use classes. There are three components included; the(More)
We studied the influence of human activities and climate change on water quantity and quality. Human activities included methods of agricultural policy, i.e. land use and management practices. Finland started to follow EU’s agricultural policy in 1995. In this study our main objective was to find out whether the original targets of the Finnish(More)
The contribution of bacteria to phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N ) release from, or retention in, sediment was studied in a flow-through system. "Live" and formaldehyde-"killed" sediment communities were incubated in 25-liter bottles with a continuous flow of P- or P + N-enriched water. Sediment bacteria in the killed communities were inhibited by adding(More)
Testing of the Integrated Nitrogen model for Catchments (INCA) in a wide range of ecosystem types across Europe has shown that the model underestimates N transformation processes to a large extent in northern catchments of Finland and Norway in winter and spring. It is found, and generally assumed, that microbial activity in soils proceeds at low rates at(More)
The Integrated Nitrogen model for Catchments (INCA) was applied to three upland catchments in Norway and Finland to assess the possible impacts of climate change and nitrogen (N) deposition on concentrations and fluxes of N in streamwater in cold regions of Europe. The study sites cover gradients in climate and N deposition from the southern boreal Øygard(More)