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Glutamate is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter which causes excess neuronal excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative insults such as stroke, trauma and seizures. A salient feature of the activation of glutamate receptors is the induction of oxidative burst. Moreover, glutamate stimulates Ca2+ influx and translocates protein kinase C (PKC). PKC mediates cellular(More)
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP, EC hydrolyzes neuropeptides, such as neurotensin and substance P in vitro, but its importance in the in vivo metabolism of these peptides has not been proved. This is the first report where intracerebral microdialysis combined with highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been used to investigate the effect of PREP(More)
Oxidative stress may be an important factor in several pathological brain conditions. A contributing factor in many such conditions is excessive glutamate release, and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation, that causes increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuronal damage. Glutamate release is(More)
Increased glutamate release is associated with serious neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and other brain injuries. Excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuronal(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Stimulation of brain cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChR) cause persistent tonic-clonic convulsions. mAChRs are coupled to G-protein which mediates the receptor stimulation to phospholipidase C (PLC). PLC hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI), a membrane(More)
Effects of an excitatory amino acid, glutamate, and of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists on the levels of free intracellular calcium, and their specific receptor binding in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were studied. The calcium response was always biphasic, except for AMPA, suggesting both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on(More)
Regional levels of cerebral inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P), an intermediate in phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, were readily detected with a new gas chromatographic (GC) method. GC analysis of trimethylsilyated Ins1P and myo-inositol-2-phosphate with a fused silica capillary SE-30 column and flame ionization detection was linear at picomolar range(More)
Cerebral inositol and inositol monophosphates, products of phosphoinositide (PI) turnover, and neuronal injury were studied in young (10 weeks) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats after pilocarpine-induced convulsions. The goal was to explore the association between short-term cholinergic convulsions, brain PI signaling, and changes in the brain morphology(More)
The role of extracellular calcium in glutamate-induced oxidative stress, and the role of glutamatergic neuronal stimulation and oxidative stress in lead neurotoxicity were explored in mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Glutamate increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) whether or not extracellular calcium was present. Glutamate-induced ROS(More)
The effects of a single dose of LiCl (2.5 or 10 mEq/kg) on brain inositol and inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P), intermediates of brain phosphoinositide (PI) turnover, were determined in male Han: Wistar rats. There was a remarkable, 36-58 fold elevation of brain Li+ as the single dose of LiCl was increased 4-fold. Moreover, the accumulation of brain lithium was(More)