Katja Lappalainen

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A novel sediment bubble gas sampler and a subsurface bubble gas collector were designed to measure the ebullition of gases from profundal sediments of aquatic ecosystems. The sediment gas sampler was constructed to collect bubble gas samples directly from the uppermost sediment layers for gas composition analysis. The floating subsurface gas collector,(More)
The springtime methane (CH4) emission from a small, eutrophied boreal lake was assessed during the winter ice-cover by measurement of gas ebullition and CH4 accumulation in the water column in association with the development of oxygen depletion after ice formation. The winter CH4 production was estimated to result in a loss of 3.6-7.9 g CH4 m(-2) from the(More)
The FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission provides comprehensive measurements of the full vector magnetic and electric fields in the reconnection regions investigated by MMS, including the dayside magnetopause and the night-side magnetotail acceleration regions out to 25 Re. Six sensors on each of the four MMS(More)
The characteristics of mechanical dispersion of tracer and liquid are analyzed using CFD modeling and experimental results from the literature. Themost significant differences are underlined and their impact isdiscussed further.Whencompared touniformliquiddistribution, themorecomplicatedflowconditions in liquid source measurements are considered to have a(More)
The use of natural resources in a development of products and materials is currently increasing. Starch is one of the investigated resources due to its bioavailability, biodegradability, safety and affordability. In this study, native barley starch was sulfated using a SO3-pyridine complex. The reaction was carried out for the first time using(More)
A new method for the measurement of homonuclear 3J(HNHalpha) coupling constants in 15N-labeled small proteins is described. The method is based on a modified sensitivity enhanced HSQC experiment, where the 3J(HNHalpha) couplings are multiplied in the f1-dimension. The J-multiplication of homonuclear 3J(HNHalpha) couplings is based on simultaneous(More)
Polysaccharides like starch are poorly soluble in common solvents. However, certain ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to dissolve them, although some depolymerization happens during the dissolution. Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in ten ionic liquids have been studied with p-TsOH as a catalyst under controlled microwave heating.(More)
In two Finnish lakes, in winter and summer, a constant temperature in the sediment was not reached until a depth of 1.5–2 m. The thermal stratification pattern in the sediment was similar to that in water. However, the lack of turbulent mixing in the sediment resulted in a thin ‘episediment’. This stratification was caused by convection. Convection currents(More)
Potato peel waste (PW) is a starch containing biomaterial produced in large amounts by food processing industry. In this work, the treatment of PW by alkaline hydrolysis and cationization in the water phase is reported. In order to improve the cationization of starch, PW was hydrolyzed by heating with alkaline (NaOH) ethanol solution (80%) in a water bath.(More)
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