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Alcohol treatment results in increases in the release of endotoxin from gut bacteria and membrane permeability of the gut to endotoxin, or both. Females are more sensitive to these changes. Elevated levels of endotoxin activate Kupffer cells to release substances such as eicosanoids, TNF-alpha and free radicals. Prostaglandins increase oxygen uptake and(More)
Free radical metabolism of ethanol has been suggested as a factor in its hepatotoxicity. Although evidence of lipid radical formation due to ethanol treatment in vivo has been reported, free radicals from ethanol itself have not been detected in living animals. However, by applying the EPR spectroscopy technique of spin trapping to the study of(More)
Free radical products have previously been detected in rodents after chronic feeding with an ethanol-containing, high-fat diet. The significance of reactive free radical formation in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity has been difficult to assess because most rodent models exhibit only fatty liver. However, serious hepatic damage resembling clinical alcoholic(More)
Kupffer cells have been implicated in mechanisms of pathophysiology following liver transplantation. Recently, postoperative injury in ethanol-induced fatty liver has been evaluated because fatty livers often fail following transplantation. The low-flow, reflow liver perfusion model was used to study the role of Kupffer cells (KC) in reperfusion injury to(More)
The formation of alpha-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol by deermouse microsomes supplemented with NADPH has been demonstrated with the EPR technique of spin trapping with alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone (POBN) as the spin trap, in the presence of deferoxamine mesylate. Superoxide dismutase prevented the formation of the radical adduct of the(More)
Previous research from this laboratory using a continuous enteral ethanol (EtOH) administration model demonstrated that Kupffer cells are pivotal in the development of EtOH-induced liver injury. When Kupffer cells were destroyed using gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or the gut was sterilized with polymyxin B and neomycin, early inflammation due to EtOH was(More)
Carbon tetrachloride and bromotrichloromethane are both metabolized by cytochrome P-450 in the presence of phenyl-N-t-butyl nitrone PBN) to the PBN/trichloromethyl (PBN/.CCl3) and the PBN carbon dioxide anion (PBN/.CO2-) radical adducts in the liver. The formation of the latter but not the former species in perfused liver was reduced markedly by prior(More)
The free radical metabolism of halocarbons has been studied in living animals by the techniques of spin trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance. Earlier work demonstrated that radical adducts of carbon tetrachloride can be detected in the bile of living rats treated with carbon tetrachloride and the spin trap phenyl-N-t-butyl nitrone. In this study,(More)
Products of the well documented reductive metabolism of CCl4 to .CCl3 have been examined by free radical trapping and ESR in vivo. We have found the phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN) radical adduct of .CCl3 in the bile of rats treated with the radical trap and 13CCl4. Hypoxia or pretreatment with phenobarbital has been reported to enhance the hepatotoxicity of(More)