BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended the development of simple, safe, sensitive and specific neutralization assays for avian influenza antibodies. We have used retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza H5 hemagglutinin (HA) as safe, surrogate viruses for influenza neutralization assays which can be carried out at Biosafety Level 2. … (More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. METHODS In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008… (More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom. DESIGN Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study. SETTING Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and… (More)
Estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. This paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. The method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the… (More)
Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralization are used to evaluate vaccines against influenza virus A (H5N1); however, poor standardization leads to interlaboratory variation of results. A candidate antibody standard (07/150) was prepared from pooled plasma of persons given clade 1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine. To test human and sheep antiserum, 15… (More)
The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults.
BACKGROUND Transporting over two billion passengers per year, global airline travel has the potential to spread emerging infectious diseases, both via transportation of infectious cases and through in-flight transmission. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommends contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of a case of influenza… (More)
BACKGROUND We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). METHODS Children previously immunized at age 6 months… (More)
We conducted a longitudinal community cohort study of healthy adults in the UK. We found significantly higher incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in 2010-11 than in 2009-10, a substantial proportion of subclinical infection, and higher risk for infection during 2010-11 among persons with lower preinfection antibody titers.
We conducted a seroepidemiologic study during an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a boarding school in England. Overall, 353 (17%) of students and staff completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample. The attack rate was 40.5% and 34.1% for self-reported acute respiratory infection (ARI). Staff were less likely to be seropositive than students… (More)