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BACKGROUND Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. METHODS In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008(More)
Coronaviruses have the potential to cause severe transmissible human disease, as demonstrated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2003. We describe here the clinical and virological features of a novel coronavirus infection causing severe respiratory illness in a patient transferred to London, United Kingdom, from the Gulf region of(More)
The role of T cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection against natural influenza illness in humans is uncertain. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) provided a unique natural experiment to determine whether crossreactive cellular immunity limits symptomatic illness in antibody-naive individuals. We followed 342 healthy adults through the UK pandemic waves(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended the development of simple, safe, sensitive and specific neutralization assays for avian influenza antibodies. We have used retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza H5 hemagglutinin (HA) as safe, surrogate viruses for influenza neutralization assays which can be carried out at Biosafety Level 2. (More)
BACKGROUND The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has emerged to cause the first pandemic of the 21st century. Development of effective vaccines is a public health priority. METHODS We conducted a single-center study, involving 176 adults, 18 to 50 years of age, to test the monovalent influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) surface-antigen vaccine, in both(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom. DESIGN Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study. SETTING Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). METHODS Children previously immunized at age 6 months(More)
Proactive priming before the next pandemic could induce immune memory responses to novel influenza antigens. In an open-label study, we analyzed B cell memory and antibody responses of 54 adults who received 2 7.5-microg doses of MF59-adjuvanted A/Vietnam/1194/2004 clade 1 (H5N1) vaccine. Twenty-four subjects had been previously primed with MF59-adjuvanted(More)
BACKGROUND Few data are available regarding the immunogenicity and safety of the pandemic influenza vaccine in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the humoral response to the influenza A H1N1/09 vaccine in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and in healthy individuals. METHODS(More)
n engl j med 359;15 www.nejm.org october 9, 2008 1631 clinical stage II disease (primary lesion, >2 cm; node-negative).2 These rates are much lower than the 90% rate cited by Wong et al. Unfortunately, the majority of patients do not fare even this well, since the overall 5-year survival rates range from 30 to 64%.3 In our opinion, this warrants more(More)