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The contribution of anergy to silencing of autoreactive B cells in physiologic settings is unknown. By comparing anergic and nonanergic immunoglobulin-transgenic mouse strains, we defined a set of surface markers that were used for presumptive identification of an anergic B cell cohort within a normal repertoire. Like anergic transgenic B cells, these(More)
Available evidence indicates that B cell tolerance is attained by receptor editing, anergy, or clonal deletion. Here, we describe a p-azophenylarsonate (Ars)-specific immunoglobulin transgenic mouse in which B cells become anergic as a consequence of cross-reaction with autoantigen in the bone marrow. Developing bone marrow B cells show no evidence of(More)
Ig variable (V) region genes are subjected to a somatic hypermutation process as B lymphocytes participate in immune reactions to protein Ags. Although little is known regarding the mechanism of mutagenesis, a consistent hierarchy of trinucleotide target preferences is evident. Analysis of trinucleotide regional distributions predicted and we now(More)
Somatic mutations are not distributed randomly throughout Ab V region genes. A sequence-specific target bias is revealed by a defined hierarchy of mutability among di- and trinucleotide sequences located within Ig intronic DNA. Here we report that the di- and trinucleotide mutability preference pattern is shared by mouse intronic JH and Jkappa clusters and(More)
Antibody diversity creates an immunoregulatory challenge for T cells that must cooperate with B cells, yet discriminate between self and nonself. To examine the consequences of T cell reactions to the B cell receptor (BCR), we generated a transgenic (Tg) line of mice expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a kappa variable region peptide in(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by high-avidity IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) that are almost certainly products of T cell-dependent immune responses. Whether critical amino acids in the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the ANA originate from V(D)J recombination or somatic hypermutation (SHM) is not known. We(More)
The BCR V region has been implicated as a potential avenue of T cell help for autoreactive B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. In principle, either germline-encoded or somatically generated sequences could function as targets of such help. Preceding studies have indicated that class II MHC-restricted T cells in normal mice attain a state tolerance to(More)
Activation of the innate immune system promotes polyclonal antibody secretion to eliminate invading pathogens. Inherent in this process is the potential to activate autoreactive B cells and induce autoimmunity. We showed previously that TLR-stimulated dendritic cells and macrophages regulate B cell tolerance to Smith antigen, in part through the secretion(More)
Somatic gene rearrangement generates a diverse repertoire of B cells, many which have receptors possessing a range of affinities for self-Ag. Newly generated B cells express high and relatively uniform amounts of surface IgM (sIgM), while follicular (FO) B cells express sIgM at widely varying levels. It is plausible, therefore, that downmodulation of sIgM(More)
T cell-dependent immune responses generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells, both of which express hypermutated Ab genes. The relationship between these cell types is not entirely understood. Both appear to emanate from the germinal center reaction, but it is unclear whether memory cells evolve while obligatorily generating plasma cells by(More)