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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by high-avidity IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) that are almost certainly products of T cell-dependent immune responses. Whether critical amino acids in the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the ANA originate from V(D)J recombination or somatic hypermutation (SHM) is not known. We(More)
Antibody diversity creates an immunoregulatory challenge for T cells that must cooperate with B cells, yet discriminate between self and nonself. To examine the consequences of T cell reactions to the B cell receptor (BCR), we generated a transgenic (Tg) line of mice expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a kappa variable region peptide in(More)
T cell-dependent immune responses generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells, both of which express hypermutated Ab genes. The relationship between these cell types is not entirely understood. Both appear to emanate from the germinal center reaction, but it is unclear whether memory cells evolve while obligatorily generating plasma cells by(More)
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