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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by high-avidity IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) that are almost certainly products of T cell-dependent immune responses. Whether critical amino acids in the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the ANA originate from V(D)J recombination or somatic hypermutation (SHM) is not known. We(More)
Antibody diversity creates an immunoregulatory challenge for T cells that must cooperate with B cells, yet discriminate between self and nonself. To examine the consequences of T cell reactions to the B cell receptor (BCR), we generated a transgenic (Tg) line of mice expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a kappa variable region peptide in(More)
The BCR V region has been implicated as a potential avenue of T cell help for autoreactive B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. In principle, either germline-encoded or somatically generated sequences could function as targets of such help. Preceding studies have indicated that class II MHC-restricted T cells in normal mice attain a state tolerance to(More)
Activation of the innate immune system promotes polyclonal antibody secretion to eliminate invading pathogens. Inherent in this process is the potential to activate autoreactive B cells and induce autoimmunity. We showed previously that TLR-stimulated dendritic cells and macrophages regulate B cell tolerance to Smith antigen, in part through the secretion(More)
Linked recognition of Ag by B and T lymphocytes is ensured in part by a state of tolerance acquired by CD4 T cells to germline-encoded sequences within the B cell Ag receptor (BCR). We sought to determine how such tolerance is attained when a peptide from the BCR variable (V) region is expressed by small numbers of B cells as it is in the physiological(More)
Autoreactive anergic B lymphocytes are considered to be dangerous because of their potential for activation and recruitment into autoimmune responses. However, they persist for days and constitute ∼5% of the B cell pool. We assessed their functional potential in the Ars/A1 transgene model, where anergic B cells express a dual-reactive Ag receptor that(More)
We previously reported that selective ablation of certain γδ T cell subsets, rather than removal of all γδ T cells, strongly affects serum Ab levels in nonimmunized mice. This type of manipulation also changed T cells, including residual γδ T cells, revealing some interdependence of γδ T cell populations. For example, in mice lacking Vγ4(+) and Vγ6(+) γδ T(More)
T cell-dependent immune responses generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells, both of which express hypermutated Ab genes. The relationship between these cell types is not entirely understood. Both appear to emanate from the germinal center reaction, but it is unclear whether memory cells evolve while obligatorily generating plasma cells by(More)
A paradox in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is that despite the well-documented tolerogenic properties of deaggregated IgG, most therapeutic IgG mAb induce anti-mAb responses. To analyze CD4 T cell reactions against IgG in various physical states, we developed an adoptive transfer model using CD4+ T cells specific for a Vκ region-derived peptide in the(More)
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