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BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has been reported in 45 countries, including countries with limited resources and a high burden of tuberculosis. We describe the management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and treatment outcomes among patients who were referred for individualized outpatient therapy in Peru. METHODS A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have emerged as major global health threats. WHO recommends contact investigation in close contacts of patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis. We aimed to assess the burden of tuberculosis disease in household contacts of such patients. METHODS We undertook a(More)
Two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a household are assumed to reflect within-household transmission. However, in high-incidence areas of MDR TB, secondary cases may arise through exposure to MDR TB in the community. To estimate the frequency of multiple introductions of MDR TB into households, we used spoligotyping and 24-loci(More)
SETTING A community-based treatment program for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Lima, Peru. OBJECTIVES To describe the activities carried out by the nurses working with the program. DESIGN A qualitative study using a variety of ethnographic methods, including participant observation, focus groups, and key informant interviews over a 5-year(More)
Socios En Salud uses directly observed therapy to treat a majority of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Peru. The nurses play an important role in this community-based model as the patients' primary care givers. Since nurses, rather than physicians, are involved in patients' daily care, we developed a nurse-order entry system to test whether such a(More)
RATIONALE A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen. OBJECTIVES This study assessed the(More)
AIM To identify the forms and means of emotional support that nurses provide to patients living with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MTR-TB) in Lima, Peru. BACKGROUND A fundamental role of nurses is to provide emotional support, defined as all the strategies that a health team employs to assure the psychosocial well-being of the patient. However,(More)
SETTING Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pose two of the greatest threats to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Given expanding global access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and second-line TB drugs, more data are needed on experiences treating MDR-TB and HIV co-infection in resource-poor settings. (More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy.(More)
We estimated the proportion of recurrence within 2 years among adults cured by individualized multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimens in Peru. Among 310 individuals with at least 24 months of follow-up, 16 experienced an episode of recurrent tuberculosis. If we assume the worst for treatment effectiveness-that all 16 episodes were caused by the original(More)