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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in breast cancer is associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis, making it an appealing therapeutic target. Trastuzumab, an HER2 antibody-based inhibitor, is currently the leading targeted treatment for HER2(+)-breast cancers. Unfortunately, many patients inevitably develop resistance(More)
Prostate cancer cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been targeted with RNA aptamer-small interfering (si)RNA chimeras, but therapeutic efficacy in vivo was demonstrated only with intratumoral injection. Clinical translation of this approach will require chimeras that are effective when administered systemically and are amenable(More)
BACKGROUND The broad applicability of RNA aptamers as cell-specific delivery tools for therapeutic reagents depends on the ability to identify aptamer sequences that selectively access the cytoplasm of distinct cell types. Towards this end, we have developed a novel approach that combines a cell-based selection method (cell-internalization SELEX) with(More)
Myelin is highly enriched in galactocerebroside (GalCer) and its sulfated form sulfatide. Mice, unable to synthesize GalCer and sulfatide (CGT(null)) or sulfatide alone (CST(null)), exhibit disorganized paranodal structures and progressive dysmyelination. To obtain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects, we examined myelin(More)
Artificial RNA reagents such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers often must be chemically modified for optimal effectiveness in environments that include ribonucleases. Mycoplasmas are common bacterial contaminants of mammalian cell cultures that are known to produce ribonucleases. Here we describe the rapid degradation of nuclease-stabilized(More)
Many cell surface signaling receptors, such as the neurotrophin receptor, TrkB, have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for diverse diseases. Reduced activation of TrkB in particular is thought to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, development of therapeutic reagents that selectively activate particular cell surface receptors(More)
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