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BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA) is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its(More)
OBJECTIVE Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease. Genetic linkage analysis and genotyping of candidate genes in families with 4 or more affected individuals more heavily loaded for susceptibility genes has not fully explained familial disease clustering. METHODS We performed whole exome sequencing to further understand the heightened(More)
OBJECTIVE We assessed the hypotheses that non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility loci would be common to sporadic cases and multiplex families, that they would have larger effects in multiplex families, and that the aggregation of susceptibility loci contributes to the increased prevalence of MS in such families. (More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system unsurpassed for its variability in disease outcome. As little is conclusively known about MS disease mechanisms, we have selected a variety of candidate genes that may influence the prognosis of the disease based on their function. A cohort of sporadic MS cases, taken(More)
Microchimerism, the persistence of foreign cells thought to derive from previous pregnancies, has been associated with autoimmune diseases. A maternal parent-of-origin effect in MS remains unexplained. We tested for microchimerism in monozygotic and dizygotic twin-pairs with MS. Microchimerism was associated with MS in affected females from monozygotic(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is determined by interactions between genes and environment and the influence of vitamin D adequacy has been proposed. Previous studies have shown that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are genetically influenced. Polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes are candidates for association with MS susceptibility. (More)
Three typically developing preschool children were presented with an in-common sorting problem involving colored and marked shapes; the task was to see what two pictures had in common and to sort a deck of pictures according to that feature. The children failed to sort accurately. They were then taught to name the common features of any pair and to answer(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify rare variants contributing to multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in a family we have previously reported with up to 15 individuals affected across 4 generations. METHODS We performed exome sequencing in a subset of affected individuals to identify novel variants contributing to MS risk within this unique family. The candidate(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system unsurpassed for its variability in disease outcome. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is involved in neuronal remodelling and several studies have attempted to examine the effect of APOE on MS disease severity, but its function in modifying the course of MS is controversial. It has(More)
The restricted use of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) family 4 gene segments by clonally expanded B cells in brain lesions and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is well documented. Specifically, the overrepresentation of gene IGHV4-39 has been highlighted in multiple studies. To investigate the role of IGHV4-39 in MS,(More)