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BA-Stk1 is a serine/threonine kinase (STK) expressed by Bacillus anthracis. In previous studies, we found that BA-Stk1 activity is modulated through dephosphorylation by a partner phosphatase, BA-Stp1. In this study, we identified critical phosphorylation regions of BA-Stk1 and determined the contributions of these phosphodomains to autophosphorylation and(More)
A study was undertaken to compare the host immune responses to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infection by the ocular or genital route in mice. Titers of HSV-2 from tissue samples were elevated regardless of the route of infection. The elevation in titers of HSV-2, including cell infiltration and cytokine/chemokine levels in the central nervous(More)
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induces new lymphatic vessel growth (lymphangiogenesis) in the cornea via expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by virally infected epithelial cells. Here, we extend this observation to demonstrate the selective targeting of corneal lymphatics by HSV-1 in the absence of functional type I interferon (IFN)(More)
UNLABELLED Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with vision impairment and encephalitis. In a mouse model of ocular neovascularization, we have previously shown that HSV-1 elicits the genesis of lymphatic vessels into the cornea proper through epithelial cell expression of vascular(More)
The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1), and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly successful pathogen that can result in significant human morbidity. Within the cornea, it was thought the initial recognition of the pathogen was through Toll-like receptors expressed on/in resident cells that then elicit pro-inflammatory cytokine production, activation of anti-viral pathways, and recruitment(More)
PURPOSE To determine the role of the chemokine CXCL1 on leukocyte recruitment, cytokine production and host resistance during HSV-1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. METHODS Viral titer and bacterial load were compared following infection of wild-type (WT) and CXCL1(-/-) mice. Corneal leukocyte recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine(More)
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