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ATP functions as a fast neurotransmitter through the specific activation of a family of ligand-gated ion channels termed P2X receptors. In this report, six distinct recombinant P2X receptor subtypes were pharmacologically characterized in a heterologous expression system devoid of endogenous P2 receptor activity. cDNAs encoding four human P2X receptor(More)
Adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitors potentiate the actions of endogenous adenosine (ADO) and ameliorate cerebral ischemic damage in animal models. The present study examined the effects of the AK inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT) in an in vitro model of neuronal ischemia, specifically, combined oxygen-glucose deprivation of rat cortical mixed neuronal-glial(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in SOD1 cause 13% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the SOD1 Gly93Ala rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 333611 delivered to CSF decreased SOD1 mRNA and protein concentrations in spinal cord tissue and prolonged survival. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and(More)
The activity of ATP as a fast neurotransmitter is mediated by the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels. P2X receptor subtypes are subject to functional modulation by a diverse set of factors, including pH, divalent cations, and temperature. The human P2X(3) (hP2X(3)) receptor subunit is expressed primarily in sensory ganglia where it exists as either a(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 has been shown to maintain intestinal homeostasis and regulate host defense against enterobacterial infection. However, how TLR5 expression is regulated and its function in the intestine have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that mucosal dendritic cells (DCs), but not splenic DCs, express high levels of TLR5 protein.(More)
BACKGROUND The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP(More)
Page 2 2 DEDICATION I wholeheartedly dedicate this work to my husband, David, my parents, and the rest of my family for their continued care, love, and encouragement throughout my life. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude towards Dr. Bruno for his guidance, mentorship, and inspiration. For the past year, I have had the(More)
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