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The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the identification of allosteric modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity. Concomitantly, several new perspectives and hypotheses regarding the way ligands regulate GPCR signalling have also emerged. Here, we briefly discuss how the concepts of collateral efficacy and permissive(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently characterized LY2033298 as a novel allosteric modulator and agonist at M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Evidence also suggested a difference in the potency of LY2033298 at rodent relative to human M(4) mAChRs. The current study investigated the basis for the species difference of this modulator and used(More)
Diet and the gut microbiota may underpin numerous human diseases. A major metabolic product of commensal bacteria are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that derive from fermentation of dietary fibre. Here we show that diets deficient or low in fibre exacerbate colitis development, while very high intake of dietary fibre or the SCFA acetate protects against(More)
The M4 muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (mAChR) is a potential therapeutic target but characterized by a lack of subtype-selective ligands. We recently generated "designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug" (DREADDs), which contained mutations of two conserved orthosteric-site residues (Y113C/A203G in the M4 mAChR) that caused a loss(More)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor whose function can be allosterically modulated in a positive or negative manner by calcimimetics or calcilytics, respectively. Indeed, the second-generation calcimimetic, cinacalcet, has proven clinically useful in the treatment of chronic kidney disease patients with secondary(More)
We recently identified LY2033298 as a novel allosteric potentiator of acetylcholine (ACh) at the M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). This study characterized the molecular mode of action of this modulator in both recombinant and native systems. Radioligand-binding studies revealed that LY2033298 displayed a preference for the active state of the(More)
Cinacalcet is predominantly used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure, but, more recently, its potential clinical efficacy in treating patients with loss-of-function mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recognized. Many clinically relevant CaSR mutations are located in the heptahelical membrane spanning(More)
CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are attractive therapeutic targets for numerous central nervous system disorders. However, clinical application of cannabinoid ligands has been hampered owing to their adverse on-target effects. Ligand-biased signaling from, and allosteric modulation of, CB1Rs offer pharmacological approaches that may enable the development(More)
More than 200 naturally occurring mutations have been identified in the human CaSR, which have been linked to diseases involving dysregulation of extracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. These mutations have classically been termed "loss-" or "gain-of-function" mutations, which is an oversimplification given that amino acid changes can alter numerous molecular(More)
This study aimed to determine why face identity aftereffects are diminished in children with autism, relative to typical children. To address the possibility that reduced face aftereffects might reflect reduced attention to adapting stimuli, we investigated the consequence of controlling attention to adapting faces during a face identity aftereffect task in(More)