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We propose that a strongly interacting particle is a finite region of space to which fields are confined. The confinement is accomplished in a Lorentz-invariant way by endowing the finite region with a constant energy per unit volume, B. We call this finite region a "bag. " The contained fields may be either fermions or bosons and may have any spin; they(More)
In this article, we present a mathematical model coupled to an experimental study of ant foraging trails. Our laboratory experiments on Tetramorium caespitum do not find a strong relationship between ant densities and velocities, a common assumption in traffic modeling. Rather, we find that higher order effects play a major role in observed behavior, and(More)
Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells(More)
We demonstrate how a theory consisting of massless Fermi and vector-meson fields can lead to an excitation spectrum of solely massive particles. We eschew spinless Bose fields in the fundamental Lagrangian, contrary to current practice, A detailed model is presented and solved in lowest order. Fermion and axial-vector-meson masses are spontaneously(More)
We investigate the possibility of generalizing differential renormalization of in an invariant fashion to theories with infrared divergencies via an infrared˜R operation. Two-dimensional σ models and the four-dimensional φ 4 theory diagrams with exceptional momenta are used as examples, while dimensional renormalization serves as a test scheme for(More)
A linear extension of a partially ordered set is simply a total ordering of the poset that is consistent with the original ordering. The linear extension diameter is a measure of how different two linear extensions could be, that is, the number of pairs of elements that are ordered differently by the two extensions. In this dissertation, we calculate the(More)
Located at the interface between estuaries and surrounding uplands, tidal marshes are in position to receive and transform material from both adjacent systems. Of particular importance in eutrophic estuarine systems, tidal marshes permanently remove nutrients via two mechanisms-denitrification and long-term burial. Denitrification was measured (monthly) in(More)
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