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A high therapeutic index is as important for gene-based therapies as it is for chemotherapy or radiotherapy. One approach has been transcriptional targeting through the use of tissue-specific regulatory elements. A more versatile approach would be to use a regulatory element that is controlled via a parameter common to a broad range of diseases. Ischemia is(More)
Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 (ABCR) gene. The disease phenotype that is most recognized in STGD1 patients, and also in the Abca4-/- mouse (a disease model), is lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium. Here, we tested whether delivery of the normal (wt) human ABCA4 gene to(More)
PURPOSE StarGen is an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vector that expresses the photoreceptor-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter (ABCA4) protein that is mutated in Stargardt disease (STGD1), a juvenile macular dystrophy. EIAV vectors are able to efficiently transduce rod and cone photoreceptors in(More)
The use of activated macrophages in the treatment of cancer has been largely ineffectual. By 'arming' these cells with the ability to express a therapeutic gene we demonstrate significant advances in the efficacy of this approach. We have used a hypoxia-regulated adenoviral vector to transduce human macrophages with either a reporter or a therapeutic gene(More)
Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the(More)
This study describes a combined gene and cell therapy based on the genetic modification of primary human macrophages, as a treatment for cancer. Here, we have utilised the tumour-infiltrating properties of macrophages as vehicles to deliver a gene encoding a prodrug-activating enzyme such as human cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) inside tumours followed by(More)
Recombinant adenoviral vectors have a number of advantages for gene therapy, including transduction of a range of dividing and non-dividing cell types. However, this broad range may be a disadvantage if non-target cells are transduced and are adversely affected by expression of the transferred gene. Here we describe a novel adenoviral vector in which(More)
The cellular response to hypoxia involves the promotion of angiogenesis, leading to increased blood flow and oxygenation. The macrophage has been identified as an orchestrator of this response in several pathologies, through the release of angiogenic factors in response to hypoxia. We have produced the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of hypoxic(More)
Anemia is a common clinical problem, and there is much interest in its role in promoting left ventricular hypertrophy through increasing cardiac workload. Normally, red blood cell production is adjusted through the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) production by the kidney. One important cause of anemia is relative deficiency of Epo, which occurs in most(More)
Gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of a wide range of inherited and acquired disorders. The development of viral vector systems to mediate safe and long-lasting expression of therapeutic transgenes in specific target cell populations is continually advancing. Gene therapy for the nervous system is particularly challenging due to the(More)