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Sprouting angiogenesis requires the coordinated behaviour of endothelial cells, regulated by Notch and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signalling. Here, we use computational modelling and genetic mosaic sprouting assays in vitro and in vivo to investigate the regulation and dynamics of endothelial cells during tip cell selection. We find(More)
Notch signalling is a key intercellular communication mechanism that is essential for cell specification and tissue patterning, and which coordinates critical steps of blood vessel growth. Although subtle alterations in Notch activity suffice to elicit profound differences in endothelial behaviour and blood vessel formation, little is known about the(More)
The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis) in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to extracellular signals, amongst which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical. In order to ensure a correct development of the vasculature, the balance(More)
ECs (endothelial cells) in the developing vasculature are heterogeneous in morphology, function and gene expression. Inter-endothelial signalling via Dll4 (Delta-like 4) and Notch has recently emerged as a key regulator of endothelial heterogeneity, controlling arterial cell specification and tip versus stalk cell selection. During sprouting angiogenesis,(More)
Endothelial cells show surprising cell rearrangement behaviour during angiogenic sprouting; however, the underlying mechanisms and functional importance remain unclear. By combining computational modelling with experimentation, we identify that Notch/VEGFR-regulated differential dynamics of VE-cadherin junctions drive functional endothelial cell(More)
The specific role of VEGFA-induced permeability and vascular leakage in physiology and pathology has remained unclear. Here we show that VEGFA-induced vascular leakage depends on signalling initiated via the VEGFR2 phosphosite Y949, regulating dynamic c-Src and VE-cadherin phosphorylation. Abolished Y949 signalling in the mouse mutant Vegfr2(Y949F/Y949F)(More)
Vascular abnormalities contribute to many diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. In angiogenesis new blood vessels, headed by a migrating tip cell, sprout from pre-existing vessels in response to signals, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tip cells meet and fuse (anastomosis) to form blood-flow supporting loops. Tip cell selection(More)
Angiogenic sprouting requires functional specialisation of endothelial cells into leading tip cells and following stalk cells. Experimental data illustrate that induction of the tip cell phenotype is dependent on the protein VEGF-A; however, the process of tip cell selection is not fully understood. Here we introduce a hierarchical agent-based model(More)
We present a number of promising examples of computational studies, which improve our understanding of the morphogenesis process of diatom cell walls. Each example considers a different physical scenario whereby computational and mathematical models are used to evaluate hypotheses pertaining to diatom valve formation; considering the roles of cytoskeletal(More)
This paper describes a novel computer simulation that uses evolution to design functioning raphid pennate diatom valves. The model of valve morphogenesis used is based on current theories that highlight the importance of cytoskeletal elements in valve development. An "organic" negative imprint is grown in a grid-based system, using both local and global(More)