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T cells that accompany allogeneic hematopoietic grafts for treating leukemia enhance engraftment and mediate the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Unfortunately, alloreactive T cells also cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). T cell depletion prevents GVHD but increases the risk of graft rejection and leukemic relapse. In human transplants, we show that(More)
Hastening posttransplantation immune reconstitution is a key challenge in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). In experimental models of mismatched HSCT, T-regulatory cells (Tregs) when co-infused with conventional T cells (Tcons) favored posttransplantation immune reconstitution and prevented lethal(More)
PURPOSE Establishment of hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplantation from mismatched relatives is feasible for patients with acute leukemia. As our original method of graft processing was unsuitable for large-scale clinical studies, we use automated devices for CD34+ cell purification. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty-seven patients with acute myeloid(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential in initiation and execution of the acute inflammatory response and subsequent resolution of fungal infection. PMNs, however, may act as double-edged swords, as the excessive release of oxidants and proteases may be responsible for injury to organs and fungal sepsis. To identify regulatory mechanisms that(More)
The ability of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus to activate, suppress, or subvert host immune response during life cycle in vivo through dynamic changing of cell wall structure and secretion implicates discriminative immune sensing of distinct fungal components. In this study, we have comparatively assessed secreted- and membrane-anchored proteins,(More)
Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) following allogeneic transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and predisposes to severe complications, including superinfection by Aspergillus species (spp). Antimicrobial polypeptides, including defensins and mannan-binding lectin, are known to block viral fusion by cross-linking sugars(More)
Efficient responses to fungi require different mechanisms of immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are uniquely able to decode the fungus-associated information and translate it into qualitatively different T helper (Th) immune responses. Murine and human DCs phagocytose conidia and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus through distinct recognition receptors. The(More)
Innate responses combine with adaptive immunity to generate the most effective form of anti-Aspergillus immune resistance. Whereas the pivotal role of dendritic cells in determining the balance between immunopathology and protective immunity to the fungus is well established, we determined that epithelial cells (ECs) also contributes to this balance.(More)
Because of the expression of inhibitory receptors (KIR) for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allotypes, a person's natural killer (NK) cells will not recognize and will, therefore, kill cells from individuals lacking his/her KIR epitopes. This study investigated the role of NK cell alloreactivity in human HLA haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic(More)
We analyzed 112 patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (61 in complete remission [CR]; 51 in relapse), who received human leukocyte-antigen (HLA)-haploidentical transplants from natural killer (NK) alloreactive (n = 51) or non-NK alloreactive donors (n = 61). NK alloreactive donors possessed HLA class I, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor(More)