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T cells that accompany allogeneic hematopoietic grafts for treating leukemia enhance engraftment and mediate the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Unfortunately, alloreactive T cells also cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). T cell depletion prevents GVHD but increases the risk of graft rejection and leukemic relapse. In human transplants, we show that(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential in initiation and execution of the acute inflammatory response and subsequent resolution of fungal infection. PMNs, however, may act as double-edged swords, as the excessive release of oxidants and proteases may be responsible for injury to organs and fungal sepsis. To identify regulatory mechanisms that(More)
Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) following allogeneic transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and predisposes to severe complications, including superinfection by Aspergillus species (spp). Antimicrobial polypeptides, including defensins and mannan-binding lectin, are known to block viral fusion by cross-linking sugars(More)
The air we breathe is filled with thousands of fungal spores (conidia) per cubic metre, which in certain composting environments can easily exceed 10(9) per cubic metre. They originate from more than a hundred fungal species belonging mainly to the genera Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Although these conidia contain many antigens and(More)
OBJECTIVES Neutrophils play a crucial role in the control of the Aspergillus fumigatus infection and act in concert with antifungal drugs. This study was undertaken to obtain insights into the possible involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the interaction of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB; AmBisome) with neutrophils in response to A. fumigatus. (More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable functional plasticity in response to conidia and hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In the present study we sought to assess the capacity of DCs activated by live fungi or fungal RNA to generate antifungal immunity in vivo. We found that both human and murine DCs pulsed with live fungi or transfected with(More)
Aspergillus and cytomegalovirus are major causes of morbidity/mortality after haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation. The high degree of mismatching makes cell immunotherapy impossible as it would result in lethal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We generated large numbers of donor T-cell clones specific for Aspergillus or cytomegalovirus antigens.(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) sense saprophytic yeast and pathogenic, filamentous forms of Candida albicans in a specific way, resulting in disparate patterns of DC and T(h) cell activation. Using human and murine DC, such disparate patterns could be traced to the exploitation of distinct recognition receptors. Although usage of mannose receptors led to protective(More)
The ability of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus to activate, suppress, or subvert host immune response during life cycle in vivo through dynamic changing of cell wall structure and secretion implicates discriminative immune sensing of distinct fungal components. In this study, we have comparatively assessed secreted- and membrane-anchored proteins,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) show a remarkable functional plasticity in the recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus and orchestrate the antifungal immune resistance in the lungs. Here, we show that thymosin alpha 1, a naturally occurring thymic peptide, induces functional maturation and interleukin-12 production by fungus-pulsed DCs through the p38 mitogen-activated(More)