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OBJECTIVE Epidemiologic studies consistently link caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist, to lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the symptomatic effects of caffeine in PD have not been adequately evaluated. METHODS We conducted a 6-week randomized controlled trial of caffeine in PD to assess effects upon daytime somnolence, motor(More)
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is commonly associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but it is unclear whether this association has implications for disease manifestations. We evaluated 36 PD patients for the presence of RBD by polysomnography. Patients underwent an extensive evaluation by a movement disorders specialist blinded to polysomnography results.(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and recent studies have suggested that RBD in PD is associated with increased cognitive impairment, waking EEG slowing, autonomic impairment and lower quality of life on mental health components. However, it is unclear whether the(More)
Added sugar, particularly in carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), represents a considerable proportion of caloric intake in North America. Interventions to decrease the intake of added sugar have been proposed, but monitoring their effectiveness can be difficult due to the costs and limitations of dietary surveys. We developed, assessed the accuracy of, and took(More)
BACKGROUND Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria(More)
Although spatio-temporal patterns of influenza spread often suggest that environmental factors play a role, their effect on the geographical variation in the timing of annual epidemics has not been assessed. We examined the effect of solar radiation, dew point, temperature and geographical position on the city-specific timing of epidemics in the USA. Using(More)
BACKGROUND There is little empirical evidence in support of a relationship between rates of influenza infection and level of material deprivation (i.e., lack of access to goods and services) and social deprivation (i.e. lack of social cohesion and support). METHOD Using validated population-level indices of material and social deprivation and medical(More)
OBJECTIVES There is a growing body of literature on malaria forecasting methods and the objective of our review is to identify and assess methods, including predictors, used to forecast malaria. DESIGN Scoping review. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. INFORMATION(More)
The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of(More)
BACKGROUND Findings from studies examining the association between obesity and acute respiratory infection are inconsistent. Few studies have assessed the relationship between obesity-related behavioral factors, such as diet and exercise, and risk of acute respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE To determine whether community prevalence of obesity, low(More)