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Understanding how humans weigh long-term and short-term goals is important for both basic cognitive science and clinical neuroscience, as substance users need to balance the appeal of an immediate high vs. the long-term goal of sobriety. We use a computational model to identify learning and decision-making abnormalities in methamphetamine-dependent(More)
Identification of neurocognitive predictors of substance dependence is an important step in developing approaches to prevent addiction. Given evidence of inhibitory control deficits in substance abusers (Monterosso et al., 2005; Fu et al., 2008; Lawrence et al., 2009; Tabibnia et al., 2011), we examined neural processing characteristics in human occasional(More)
There is some evidence that neuroimaging can be used to predict relapse among abstinent methamphetamine-dependent (MD) individuals. However, it remains unclear what cognitive and neural processes contribute to relapse. This investigation examined whether insula activation during risk-taking decisions-a process shown to be disrupted in MD-is able to predict(More)
The influence of emotion on higher-order cognitive functions, such as attention allocation, planning, and decision-making, is a growing area of research with important clinical applications. In this review, we provide a computational framework to conceptualize emotional influences on inhibitory control, an important building block of executive functioning.(More)
Bayesian ideal observer models quantify individuals' context- and experience-dependent beliefs and expectations about their environment, which provides a powerful approach (i) to link basic behavioural mechanisms to neural processing; and (ii) to generate clinical predictors for patient populations. Here, we focus on (ii) and determine whether individual(More)
(6R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6-BH4) and its 7-isomer (7-BH4) function as uncompetitive inhibitors of human and mushroom tyrosinases. Stoichiometry for the binding of [3H]-labeled 6-BH4 to both tyrosinases has been established as 1:1. Stable complexation of 6-BH4 to tyrosinase appears to involve a hydrophilic conserved glutamic acid (Glu131)(More)
Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring(More)
Poor performance in goal-oriented sensory motor tasks is a common symptom among depressed individuals. However, it is unclear what the underlying causes of these deficits are. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms is an important first step to develop more targeted behavioral interventions. Here, using simple motor-control tasks, we propose an inverse(More)
Differentiating the ability from the motivation to act is of central importance to psychiatric disorders in general and depression in particular. However, it has been difficult to develop quantitative approaches to relate depression to poor motor performance in goal-directed tasks. Here, we use an inverse optimal control approach to provide a computational(More)
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