Kati Mäkitalo

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Personal use of this manuscript is permitted. Permission from Elsevier must be obtained for any other commercial purpose. This article may not exactly replicate the published version, due to editorial changes and/or formatting and corrections during the final stage of publication. Interested readers are advised to consult the published version which can be(More)
11 Abstract 12 Using online learning environments in higher education offers innovative possibilities to 13 support collaborative learning. However, online learning creates new kinds of problems for 14 participants who have not previously worked with each other. One of these problems is uncer-15 tainty which occurs when participants do not know each other.(More)
In this paper, the main purpose is to explore how participants establish and maintain the common ground in the computer-based conferences. Previous studies assume that before the participants can reach the deeper level interaction and learning, they have to gain an adequate level of common ground (Dillenbourg, 1999; Baker et al., 1999; Veerman, 2000).(More)
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