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Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging provides direct and absolute measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Arterial transit time is a related physiological parameter reflecting the duration for the labeled spins to reach the brain region of interest. Most of the existing ASL approaches to assess arterial transit time rely on multiple measurements(More)
The val allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val(158)met polymorphism has been linked with nicotine dependence and with cognitive performance in healthy volunteers. We tested the hypothesis that the val allele is a risk factor for altered brain function and cognition during nicotine abstinence as compared with the normal smoking state. Chronic(More)
Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin(More)
A prominent account of conceptual knowledge proposes that information is distributed over visual, tactile, auditory, motor and verbal-declarative attribute domains to the degree to which these features were activated when the knowledge was acquired [D.A. Allport, Distributed memory, modular subsystems and dysphagia, In: S.K. Newman, R. Epstein (Eds.),(More)
A number of lines of evidence suggest that computation of hand posture differs for object grasping as compared to functional object use. Hand shaping for grasping appears to rely strongly upon calculations of current object location and volume, whereas hand shaping for object use additionally requires access to stored knowledge about the skilled(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI is an emerging method in clinical neuroimaging. Its non-invasiveness, absence of low frequency noise, and ability to quantify the absolute level of cerebral blood flow (CBF) make the method ideal for longitudinal designs or low frequency paradigms. Despite the usefulness in the study of cognitive dysfunctions in(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) has begun to be used to explore human brain activity during ecological and natural conditions. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI provides an appealing approach for imaging sustained brain activity during natural conditions because of its long-term temporal stability and ability to noninvasively quantify absolute cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of gestational cocaine exposure on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). STUDY DESIGN Using an n-back task, we obtained fMRI with a 3T Siemens scanner on 49 adolescents, 25 who were exposed to cocaine and 24 who were not exposed. The primary outcome was PFC activation during task(More)
We present a new shape-based approach for regional group activation analysis in fMRI studies. The method restricts anatomical normalization, spatial smoothing and random effects statistical analysis to the space inside and around a structure of interest. Normalization involves finding intersubject correspondences between manually outlined masks, and it(More)
Varenicline promotes smoking cessation and reduces urges to smoke. However, the mechanisms associated with these effects and their time course are not well characterized. One mechanism may be extinction, but the duration of the current dosing protocol may not be sufficient. We examined the effect of extended pre-treatment with varenicline on smoking(More)