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Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are elevated in preeclamptic women and are thought to be an important link between placental ischemia and endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of TNF in mediating hypertension in response to chronic reductions in uterine perfusion (RUPPs) in pregnant(More)
BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is associated with increases in plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. We recently reported that a twofold elevation in plasma TNF-alpha produces significant reductions in renal function and hypertension in pregnant rats. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Recent in vitro studies have reported that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) downregulates the angiostatic protein soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 from placental villous explants and that the HO-1 metabolites CO and bilirubin negatively regulate endothelin 1 and reactive oxygen species. Although soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, endothelin 1, and reactive oxygen(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the effect of an endothelin type A receptor antagonist (ETA) on uterine artery resistive index (UARI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a placental ischemia rat model of preeclampsia produced by reduction in uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). STUDY DESIGN UARI was assessed by Doppler velocimetry in RUPP and normal(More)
Despite being one of the leading causes of maternal death and a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia are unknown. The initiating event in preeclampsia has been postulated to be reduced uteroplacental perfusion. Placental ischemia/hypoxia is thought to lead to widespread(More)
The renal circulation undergoes significant changes during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Although numerous studies indicate that the pressor response to angiotensin II (Ang II) is reduced during pregnancy, it is unclear as to whether this altered sensitivity to Ang II occurs in the renal circulation. The first aim of this study was to(More)
While soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE), the mechanisms whereby increased sFlt-1 leads to enhanced ET-1 production and hypertension remain unclear. It is well documented that nitric oxide (NO) production is reduced in PE; however, whether a reduction in NO(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is elevated in the plasma of preeclamptic women and may have a role in pregnancy-induced hypertension. However, whether the hemodynamic effects of TNF-alpha reflect the direct effects on vascular reactivity is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that TNF-alpha impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation and enhances(More)
BACKGROUND Obese individuals have an expanded interstitium in the renal inner medulla (IM), which stains positively with periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue. In obese dogs, the IM is also expanded, with hyaluronan (HA) content being 2.4 times control. METHODS We determined the anatomic pattern of renal HA deposition following weight gain, using an animal(More)
Aortic ring studies have demonstrated a decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation or an enhanced response to vasoconstrictors in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Whether such abnormalities exist in the renal circulation is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine functional renal responses to acetylcholine (ACh) or angiotensin II (ANG II)(More)