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Nucleotide sequence variations of a 2.9 kb fragment of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) isolated from samples of Penaeus monodon were determined and compared with an isolate from Hawaii. The infection characteristics of these isolates were examined by histology, in situ hybridization, and laboratory challenge studies with P.(More)
A 2.9 kb fragment of the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) genome, which contains the coding sequence of putative non-structural and capsid proteins, was amplified and sequenced from each of 14 IHHNV isolates collected from cultured penaeid shrimp stocks in Hawaii and various sites in the Americas between 1982 and 1997. The(More)
A Taura syndrome virus (TSV) isolate from cultured Penaeus vannamei grown in Belize, Central America was characterized and shown to be a unique isolate. Mortality rates in laboratory infections of specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei, reactivity of the virus with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1A1 and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Belize(More)
The causative agent of myonecrosis affecting cultured Penaeus vannamei in Brazil was demonstrated to be a virus after purification of the agent from infected shrimp tissues. Purified viral particles were injected into specific pathogen-free P. vannamei, resulting in a disease that displayed the same characteristics as those found in the original shrimp used(More)
We found an infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)-related sequence within the shrimp genome in populations of Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia. IHHNV is a single-stranded DNA virus that has caused severe mortality and stunted growth in penaeid shrimp. Recently, IHHNV-related sequences were found in samples of P. monodon(More)
A real-time PCR method using a fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay and a PE Applied Biosystems GeneAmp 5700 sequence detector was developed to detect infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in penaeid shrimp. A pair of PCR primers to amplify an 81 bp DNA fragment and a fluorogenic probe (TaqMan probe) were selected from ORF1 (open reading(More)
Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is highly pathogenic to Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and has caused significant economic loss in the shrimp culture industry. It was first reported from Ecuador in 1992 and has since become widely distributed throughout the Americas and southeast Asia (SE Asia). To determine the genetic relationship among various(More)
Shrimp farming in the Americas began to develop in the late 1970s into a significant industry. In its first decade of development, the technology used was simple and postlarvae (PLs) produced from wild adults and wild caught PLs were used for stocking farms. Prior to 1990, there were no World Animal Health Organization (OIE) listed diseases, but that(More)
We developed a PCR assay that can detect infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) but that does not react with IHHNV-related sequences in the genome of Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia. IHHNV is a single-stranded DNA virus that has caused severe mortality and stunted growth in penaeid shrimp. Recently, IHHNV-related sequences(More)
Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has emerged as a major pathogen in penaeid shrimp aquaculture and has caused substantial economic loss. The disease was first discovered in Ecuador in 1991, and the virus is now globally distributed with the greatest concentration of infections in the Americas and Southeast Asia. To determine the(More)