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Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins were first identified as essential factors for the growth and maintenance of flagella in the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a screen for embryonic patterning mutations induced by ethylnitrosourea, here we identify two mouse mutants, wimple (wim) and flexo (fxo), that lack ventral neural cell types(More)
The primary cilium has recently stepped into the spotlight, as a flood of data show that this organelle has crucial roles in vertebrate development and human genetic diseases. Cilia are required for the response to developmental signals, and evidence is accumulating that the primary cilium is specialized for hedgehog signal transduction. The formation of(More)
To address the biological function of RNA interference (RNAi)-related pathways in mammals, we disrupted the gene Dicer1 in mice. Loss of Dicer1 lead to lethality early in development, with Dicer1-null embryos depleted of stem cells. Coupled with our inability to generate viable Dicer1-null embryonic stem (ES) cells, this suggests a role for Dicer, and, by(More)
Several studies have linked cilia and Hedgehog signaling, but the precise roles of ciliary proteins in signal transduction remain enigmatic. Here we describe a mouse mutation, hennin (hnn), that causes coupled defects in cilia structure and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The hnn mutant cilia are short with a specific defect in the structure of the ciliary(More)
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is a member of a family of structurally related, single-pass transmembrane proteins that carry out a variety of functions in development and physiology, including signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lrp4 is expressed in multiple tissues in the mouse, and is important for the proper(More)
Protein kinase A (PKA) is an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction pathway. PKA is known to be required for the proteolytic processing event that generates the repressor forms of the Ci and Gli transcription factors that keep target genes off in the absence of Hh. Here, we show that complete loss of PKA(More)
Cilia-associated human genetic disorders are striking in the diversity of their abnormalities and their complex inheritance. Inactivation of the retrograde ciliary motor by mutations in DYNC2H1 causes skeletal dysplasias that have strongly variable expressivity. Here we define previously unknown genetic relationships between Dync2h1 and other genes required(More)
In the developing spinal cord, regional and combinatorial activities of Hox transcription factors are critical in controlling motor neuron fates along the rostrocaudal axis, exemplified by the precise pattern of limb innervation by more than fifty Hox-dependent motor pools. The mechanisms by which motor neuron diversity is constrained to limb levels are,(More)
Components of microbial cell walls are potent activators of innate immune responses in animals. For example, the mammalian TLR4 signaling pathway is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and is required for resistance to infection by Gram-negative bacteria. Other components of microbial surfaces, such as peptidoglycan, are also potent activators of(More)
The primary cilium has critical roles in human development and disease, but the mechanisms that regulate ciliogenesis are not understood. Here, we show that Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) is a dedicated regulator of the initiation of ciliogenesis in vivo. We identified a null allele of mouse Ttbk2 based on loss of Sonic hedgehog activity, a signaling pathway(More)