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Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins were first identified as essential factors for the growth and maintenance of flagella in the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a screen for embryonic patterning mutations induced by ethylnitrosourea, here we identify two mouse mutants, wimple (wim) and flexo (fxo), that lack ventral neural cell types(More)
The primary cilium has recently stepped into the spotlight, as a flood of data show that this organelle has crucial roles in vertebrate development and human genetic diseases. Cilia are required for the response to developmental signals, and evidence is accumulating that the primary cilium is specialized for hedgehog signal transduction. The formation of(More)
To address the biological function of RNA interference (RNAi)-related pathways in mammals, we disrupted the gene Dicer1 in mice. Loss of Dicer1 lead to lethality early in development, with Dicer1-null embryos depleted of stem cells. Coupled with our inability to generate viable Dicer1-null embryonic stem (ES) cells, this suggests a role for Dicer, and, by(More)
Several studies have linked cilia and Hedgehog signaling, but the precise roles of ciliary proteins in signal transduction remain enigmatic. Here we describe a mouse mutation, hennin (hnn), that causes coupled defects in cilia structure and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The hnn mutant cilia are short with a specific defect in the structure of the ciliary(More)
Within the group of maternal effect genes necessary for the establishment of the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo, the Toll gene mutates to give a singular variety of embryonic phenotypes. Lack of function alleles produce dorsalized embryos as a recessive maternal effect. Dominant gain of function alleles result in ventralized embryos. Other(More)
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is a member of a family of structurally related, single-pass transmembrane proteins that carry out a variety of functions in development and physiology, including signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lrp4 is expressed in multiple tissues in the mouse, and is important for the proper(More)
Components of microbial cell walls are potent activators of innate immune responses in animals. For example, the mammalian TLR4 signaling pathway is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and is required for resistance to infection by Gram-negative bacteria. Other components of microbial surfaces, such as peptidoglycan, are also potent activators of(More)
Protein kinase A (PKA) is an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction pathway. PKA is known to be required for the proteolytic processing event that generates the repressor forms of the Ci and Gli transcription factors that keep target genes off in the absence of Hh. Here, we show that complete loss of PKA(More)
Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease causing perinatal lethality associated with a complex syndrome that includes occipital meningoencephalocele, hepatic biliary ductal plate malformation, postaxial polydactyly and polycystic kidneys. The gene mutated in type 1 MKS encodes a protein associated with the base of the cilium in(More)
The mouse open brain (opb) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) genes have opposing roles in neural patterning: opb is required for dorsal cell types and Shh is required for ventral cell types in the spinal cord. Here we show that opb acts downstream of Shh. Ventral cell types that are absent in Shh mutants, including the floor plate, are present in Shh opb double(More)