Kathryn Smart

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Balancing the generation of immune responses capable of controlling virus replication with those causing immunopathology is critical for the survival of the host and resolution of influenza-induced inflammation. Based on the capacity of interleukin-6 (IL-6) to govern both optimal T-cell responses and inflammatory resolution, we hypothesised that IL-6 plays(More)
The evolution of immune blockades in tumors limits successful antitumor immunity, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg), a T-cell subset that dampens excessive inflammatory and autoreactive responses, can allow activation of tumor-specific T cells. However, cancer immunotherapy studies(More)
Zinc transporter LIV-1 (SLC39A6) is estrogen regulated and present in increased amounts in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer as well as in tumors that spread to the lymph nodes. The LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporters consists of nine human sequences that share considerable homology across transmembrane domains. Many of these sequences have been(More)
The tumor microenvironment comprises newly formed blood and lymphatic vessels which shape the influx, retention and departure of lymphocytes within the tumor mass. Thus, by influencing the intratumoral composition of lymphocytes, these vessels affect the manner in which the adaptive immune system responds to the tumor, either promoting or impairing(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal influenza A infection affects a significant cohort of the global population annually, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies are of limited efficacy, and during a pandemic outbreak would only be available to a minority of the global population. Over-the-counter medicines are routinely taken by(More)
The relationship between the adaptive CD4(+) T cell response and human cancer is unclear. The oncofetal antigen 5T4 is expressed on many human carcinomas, including colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, but has limited expression on normal tissues. We previously identified anti-5T4 CD4(+) T cells in a proportion of CRC patients, and we extended this study to(More)
The frequency of CD4(+)  Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells is often significantly increased in the blood of tumour-bearing mice and people with cancer. Moreover, Treg cell frequencies are often higher in tumours compared with blood and lymphoid organs. We wished to determine whether certain chemokines expressed within the tumour mass selectively recruit(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are often highly enriched within the tumor-infiltrating T cell pool. Using a well-characterised model of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcomas we show that the enriched tumor-infiltrating Treg population comprises largely of CXCR3(+) T-bet(+) 'TH1-like' Tregs which are thymus-derived Helios(+) cells. Whilst IL-2 maintains(More)
The evolution of immune blockades in tumors limits successful antitumor immunity, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg), a T-cell subset that dampens excessive inflammatory and autoreactive responses, can allow activation of tumor-specific T cells. However, cancer immunotherapy studies(More)
Decline of cell-mediated immunity is often attributed to decaying T-cell numbers and their distribution in peripheral organs. This study examined the hypothesis that qualitative as well as quantitative changes contribute to the declining efficacy of CD8(+) T-cell memory. Using a model of influenza virus infection, where loss of protective CD8(+) T-cell(More)