Kathryn Smart

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Although elevated CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies within tumors are well documented, the functional and phenotypic characteristics of CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ and CD4⁺Foxp3⁻ T cell subsets from matched blood, healthy colon, and colorectal cancer require in-depth investigation. Flow cytometry revealed that the majority of intratumoral CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal influenza A infection affects a significant cohort of the global population annually, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies are of limited efficacy, and during a pandemic outbreak would only be available to a minority of the global population. Over-the-counter medicines are routinely taken by(More)
The tumor microenvironment comprises newly formed blood and lymphatic vessels which shape the influx, retention and departure of lymphocytes within the tumor mass. Thus, by influencing the intratumoral composition of lymphocytes, these vessels affect the manner in which the adaptive immune system responds to the tumor, either promoting or impairing(More)
The frequency of CD4(+)  Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells is often significantly increased in the blood of tumour-bearing mice and people with cancer. Moreover, Treg cell frequencies are often higher in tumours compared with blood and lymphoid organs. We wished to determine whether certain chemokines expressed within the tumour mass selectively recruit(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are often highly enriched within the tumor-infiltrating T cell pool. Using a well-characterised model of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcomas we show that the enriched tumor-infiltrating Treg population comprises largely of CXCR3(+) T-bet(+) 'TH1-like' Tregs which are thymus-derived Helios(+) cells. Whilst IL-2 maintains(More)
Decline of cell-mediated immunity is often attributed to decaying T-cell numbers and their distribution in peripheral organs. This study examined the hypothesis that qualitative as well as quantitative changes contribute to the declining efficacy of CD8(+) T-cell memory. Using a model of influenza virus infection, where loss of protective CD8(+) T-cell(More)
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