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Over recent years much interest has been directed toward understanding the process by which refractive errors develop, how this is controlled and the effect of refractive errors on subsequent visual status. There are obvious difficulties in studying such mechanisms in human subjects and for this reason many studies have employed animal models. The present(More)
  • K J Saunders
  • 1989
Using a matching-to-sample procedure, McIntire, Cleary, and Thompson (1987) taught monkeys the conditional relations A1-R1-A1-R1, A2-R2-A2-R2, A1-R1-B1-R1, A2-R2-B2-R2, B1-R1-C1-R1, and B2-R2-C2-R2, where the first and third terms in each relation refer to the sample and comparison stimuli, respectively, and the second and last terms refer to the emission(More)
We investigated relationships between retinal structure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and retinal function using peripheral resolution acuity and multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) in 56 subjects with a range of refractive errors (+0.50 to -15.00 D). Retinal thinning occurred in moderate and high myopia which appeared to be primarily due to(More)
Two experiments demonstrated stimulus control and generalization of conditioned punishment with humans. In both studies, responses first were reinforced with points exchangeable for money on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of one line length (S(D)). Next, a second line length was introduced, and point loss followed every response in the(More)
This study demonstrates recombinative generalization of within-syllable units in prereading children. Three kindergarten children learned to select printed consonant-vowel-consonant words upon hearing the corresponding spoken words. The words were taught in sets; there were six sets, presented consecutively. Within sets, the four words that were taught had(More)
In this study we asked whether measures of phonological awareness and rapid naming were correlated with single-word reading skills of 30 adults with mild mental retardation. We presented four tests of phonological awareness (for rime, first, middle, and end-sound categorization), two rapid-naming tests (pictures and letters), and the Woodcock(More)
PURPOSE To describe refractive status in children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and relate refractive error to standardized measures of type and severity of CP impairment and to ocular dimensions. METHODS A population-based sample of 118 participants aged 4 to 23 years with CP (mean 11.64 +/- 4.06) and an age-appropriate control group (n =(More)
There have been many published reports of attempts to teach requests to individuals with severely limited verbal repertoires associated with developmental disabilities. Few of these studies used Skinner's (1975) term mand to refer to the behavior taught, yet many seemed to be influenced by Skinner's analysis. We analyzed procedures according to three(More)