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OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of long-term supplementation with arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) on cell phenotypes and cytokine production in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial provided children, (ages 5-7 years; n = 37) who had(More)
Many published studies of breast milk FA composition are limited to populations from one or two countries. We aimed to examine the degree to which FA compositions vary across a number of diverse populations. Because diet and maternal adipose stores influence breast milk FA composition, differences in FA composition between groups most likely reflect(More)
BACKGROUND The last trimester of pregnancy is a period of rapid accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, both in the central nervous system and the body as a whole. Human milk contains these fatty acids, whereas some preterm infant formulas do not. Infants fed formulas without these fatty acids have lower plasma and erythrocyte concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND Carotenoids in serum vary between countries and within populations with evidence suggesting a qualitative relationship to diet. Breast milk carotenoids furnish a source of vitamin A and potentially provide immunoprotection and other health benefits for infants. There have been numerous studies of milk carotenoid concentrations in undernourished(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula with a protein profile and total protein concentration closer to human milk (HM) and lower than conventional formulas. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundred and sixteen healthy, term infants, <or=14 days post-natal age were enrolled and 166 (76.9%) completed the study. Timed(More)
Alpha-lactalbumin, a 14-kD protein, plays a central biochemical role in the mammary gland as the regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, and also plays a nutritional role for the rapidly growing neonate as the protein in highest concentration in human milk. The current study was undertaken to better characterize alpha-lactalbumin concentrations in human(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational(More)
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