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OBJECTIVES To determine how well antibiotic treatment is targeted by simple clinical syndromes and to what extent drug resistance threatens affordable antibiotics. DESIGN Observational study involving a priori definition of a hierarchy of syndromic indications for antibiotic therapy derived from World Health Organization integrated management of childhood(More)
BACKGROUND With strict adherence to international recommended treatment guidelines, the case fatality for severe malnutrition ought to be less than 5%. In African hospitals, fatality rates of 20% are common and are often attributed to poor training and faulty case management. Improving outcome will depend upon the identification of those at greatest risk(More)
The alpha+-thalassaemias are the commonest known human genetic disorders, affecting up to 80 per cent of some populations. Although there is good evidence from both epidemiological and clinical studies that these gene frequencies reflect selection by, and protection from, malaria, the mechanism is unknown. We have studied the epidemiology of malaria in(More)
BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility(More)
BACKGROUND Hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa frequently receive whole blood transfusions for severe anemia. The risk from bacterial contamination of blood for transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is not known. This study assessed the frequency of bacterial contamination of pediatric whole blood transfusions at a referral hospital in Kenya. STUDY(More)
BACKGROUND Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in(More)
BACKGROUND Acute seizures are a common cause of paediatric admissions to hospitals in resource poor countries and a risk factor for neurological and cognitive impairment and epilepsy. We determined the incidence, aetiological factors and the immediate outcome of seizures in a rural malaria endemic area in coastal Kenya. METHODS We recruited all children(More)
BACKGROUND There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area. METHODS We recruited 133 children, aged 3-156 months, who presented to a district hospital on the Kenyan coast(More)
Malarial anemia is a global public health problem and is characterized by a low reticulocyte response in the presence of life-threatening hemolysis. Although cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), can suppress erythropoiesis, the grossly abnormal bone marrow morphology indicates that other factors may contribute to ineffective(More)