Kathryn Maitland

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BACKGROUND There are few epidemiologic data on invasive bacterial infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia. METHODS Between August 1998 and July 2002, we cultured blood on(More)
BACKGROUND Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in(More)
Kathryn Maitland, M.B., B.S., Ph.D., Sarah Kiguli, M.B., Ch.B., M.Med., Robert O. Opoka, M.B., Ch.B., M.Med., Charles Engoru, M.B., Ch.B., M.Med., Peter Olupot-Olupot, M.B., Ch.B., Samuel O. Akech, M.B., Ch.B., Richard Nyeko, M.B., Ch.B., M.Med., George Mtove, M.D., Hugh Reyburn, M.B., B.S., Trudie Lang, Ph.D., Bernadette Brent, M.B., B.S., Jennifer A.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4-6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from the(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malnutrition, and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) are reported among children with severe malaria. However, it is unclear whether their cooccurrence with falciparum parasitization and severe disease happens by chance or by association among children in areas where malaria is endemic. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine how well antibiotic treatment is targeted by simple clinical syndromes and to what extent drug resistance threatens affordable antibiotics. DESIGN Observational study involving a priori definition of a hierarchy of syndromic indications for antibiotic therapy derived from World Health Organization integrated management of childhood(More)
Malarial anemia is a global public health problem and is characterized by a low reticulocyte response in the presence of life-threatening hemolysis. Although cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), can suppress erythropoiesis, the grossly abnormal bone marrow morphology indicates that other factors may contribute to ineffective(More)
Studies of the prevalence and incidence of malaria were conducted in children < 10 years old living in 10 rural villages on the island of Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu, south-west Pacific. Malaria prevalence remained stable at 30% throughout the year but the relative contributions of the 2 major species were highly dependent on season. Plasmodium falciparum(More)
BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility(More)
The alpha+-thalassaemias are the commonest known human genetic disorders, affecting up to 80 per cent of some populations. Although there is good evidence from both epidemiological and clinical studies that these gene frequencies reflect selection by, and protection from, malaria, the mechanism is unknown. We have studied the epidemiology of malaria in(More)