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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4-6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from the(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine how well antibiotic treatment is targeted by simple clinical syndromes and to what extent drug resistance threatens affordable antibiotics. DESIGN Observational study involving a priori definition of a hierarchy of syndromic indications for antibiotic therapy derived from World Health Organization integrated management of childhood(More)
BACKGROUND There are few epidemiologic data on invasive bacterial infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia. METHODS Between August 1998 and July 2002, we cultured blood on(More)
BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility(More)
BACKGROUND With strict adherence to international recommended treatment guidelines, the case fatality for severe malnutrition ought to be less than 5%. In African hospitals, fatality rates of 20% are common and are often attributed to poor training and faulty case management. Improving outcome will depend upon the identification of those at greatest risk(More)
CONTEXT Plasmodium falciparum appears to have a particular propensity to involve the brain but the burden, risk factors, and full extent of neurological involvement have not been systematically described. OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence and describe the clinical phenotypes and outcomes of neurological involvement in African children with acute(More)
BACKGROUND Hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa frequently receive whole blood transfusions for severe anemia. The risk from bacterial contamination of blood for transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is not known. This study assessed the frequency of bacterial contamination of pediatric whole blood transfusions at a referral hospital in Kenya. STUDY(More)
Although the alpha+ thalassemias almost certainly confer protection against death from malaria, this has not been formally documented. We have conducted a study involving 655 case patients with rigorously defined severe malaria and 648 controls, frequency matched on area of residence and ethnic group. The prevalence of both heterozygous and homozygous(More)
BACKGROUND In African children, distinguishing severe falciparum malaria from other severe febrile illnesses with coincidental Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia is a major challenge. P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is released by mature sequestered parasites and can be used to estimate the total parasite burden. We investigated the(More)
I.V. fluid therapy plays a fundamental role in the management of hospitalized patients. While the correct use of i.v. fluids can be lifesaving, recent literature demonstrates that fluid therapy is not without risks. Indeed, the use of certain types and volumes of fluid can increase the risk of harm, and even death, in some patient groups. Data from a recent(More)