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The current study, in parallel experiments, evaluated the impact of chronic psychological stress on physiological and behavioural measures, and on the activation status of microglia in 15 stress-responsive brain regions. Rats were subjected, for 14 days, to two 30 min sessions of restraint per day, applied at random times each day. In one experiment the(More)
It has been hypothesized that the brain categorizes stressors and utilizes neural response pathways that vary in accordance with the assigned category. If this is true, stressors should elicit patterns of neuronal activation within the brain that are category-specific. Data from previous immediate-early gene expression mapping studies have hinted that this(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been strongly implicated in control of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) response to stress. Because of the paucity of direct projections from the mPFC to the PVN, we sought to investigate possible brain regions that might act as a relay between the two during psychological stress. Bilateral(More)
Neuronal losses are observed in the brain after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) however few studies have examined the effects of HI on specific neuronal phenotypes and their possible contribution to behavioural outcomes. In the present study we examined whether postnatal day 3 (P3) HI alters numbers of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide-Y(More)
The amygdala plays a pivotal role in the generation of appropriate responses to emotional stimuli. In the case of emotional stressors, these responses include activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This effect is generally held to depend upon the central nucleus of the amygdala, but recent evidence suggests a role for the medial(More)
Developmental vitamin D deficiency (DVD) has been shown to alter the orderly pattern of brain development. Even though the period of vitamin D deficiency is restricted to gestation this is sufficient to induce behavioural abnormalities in the adult offspring consistent with those seen in many animal models of schizophrenia. Given that some of these(More)
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is activated robustly by an immune challenge such as the systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Because IL-1beta is not believed to cross the blood-brain barrier in any significant amount, it is likely that IL-1beta elicits CeA cell recruitment by means of activation of(More)
We performed c-fos expression experiments in conscious rats to quantify the threshold and extent of activation of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells in response to non-hypotensive and hypotensive hemorrhages allowing us to assess whether their pattern of recruitment corresponded to known oxytocin, vasopressin and ACTH release patterns. Also, because previous(More)
Medial parvocellular paraventricular corticotropin-releasing hormone (mPVN CRH) cells are critical in generating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). However, although it is understood that catecholamine inputs are important in initiating mPVN CRH cell responses to IL-1beta, the contributions of(More)
This study examined if brain pathways in morphine-dependent rats are activated by opioid withdrawal precipitated outside the central nervous system. Withdrawal precipitated with a peripherally acting quaternary opioid antagonist (naloxone methiodide) increased Fos expression but caused a more restricted pattern of neuronal activation than systemic(More)