Kathryn Koehler

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Saliency models have been frequently used to predict eye movements made during image viewing without a specified task (free viewing). Use of a single image set to systematically compare free viewing to other tasks has never been performed. We investigated the effect of task differences on the ability of three models of saliency to predict the performance of(More)
We search for objects in environments that provide multiple cues to guide our attention. Contextual information facilitates object recognition and guides eye movement behavior (Biederman, 1972; Loftus & Mackworth, 1978; but see Henderson & Hollingworth, 1999). Current research either does not precisely define different types of contextual information(More)
Even with great advances in machine vision, animals are still unmatched in their ability to visually search complex scenes. Animals from bees [1, 2] to birds [3] to humans [4-12] learn about the statistical relations in visual environments to guide and aid their search for targets. Here, we investigate a novel manner in which humans utilize rapidly acquired(More)
The effect of face inversion has been heavily studied, whereas fewer studies have investigated inversion in scenes. We investigated the influence of scene inversion on decisions and contextual guidance of eye movements during visual search. A saccade contingent display termination paradigm was used to assess the temporal dynamics of the effect. Observers(More)
Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the(More)
Scene context is known to facilitate object recognition and guide visual search, but little work has focused on isolating image-based cues and evaluating their contributions to eye movement guidance and search performance. Here, we explore three types of contextual cues (a co-occurring object, the configuration of other objects, and the superordinate(More)
How faces change across lengthy time periods and whether the changing appearance of a face functions as an identity category was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the faces of 15 individuals were multidimensionally scaled at each of seven age epochs (roughly <6 months to 75 years of age) and correlated with the same persons, but at different(More)
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