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Although East African black athletes dominate endurance running events, it is unknown whether black and white endurance runners with similar racing ability, matched for training, may differ in their skeletal muscle biochemical phenotype. Thirteen Xhosa (XR) and 13 Caucasian (CR) endurance runners were recruited and matched for 10-km performance, average(More)
Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by(More)
Skeletal muscle repair requires the migration of myoblasts (activated satellite cells) both to the injury site and then within the wound to facilitate cellular alignment in preparation for differentiation, fusion and eventual healing. Along this journey, the cells encounter a range of soluble and extracellular matrix factors which regulate their movement(More)
Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance(More)
The role played by ADP in modulating cross-bridge function has been difficult to study, because it is hard to buffer ADP concentration in skinned muscle preparations. To solve this, we used an analog of ADP, spin-labeled ADP (SL-ADP). SL-ADP binds tightly to myosin but is a very poor substrate for creatine kinase or pyruvate kinase. Thus ATP can be(More)
The number of adult stem cells (ASCs) is very small, limiting the regenerative potential of tissues. One of the most studied ASCs in humans is the satellite cell (SC), which proliferates and increases pool size under exercise stress and muscle damage. This review examines the growth factor response to specific types of exercise to show the potential of(More)
Disuse atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass due to inactivity or lower than ‘normal’ use. It is not only a furtive component of the ‘modern’ sedentary lifestyle but also a part of numerous pathologies, where muscle loss is linked to disease specific and/or other toxicity factors, eventually leading to wasting (cachexia). Whether disuse-or-disease(More)
It is plausible that multiple muscle biopsies following a muscle damaging intervention can exacerbate the inflammatory and subsequent satellite cell responses. To elucidate confounding effects of muscle biopsy procedure on satellite cell number, indirect markers of damage and the inflammatory response following acute downhill running (DHR) were(More)
During fatigue, muscles become weaker, slower, and more economical at producing tension. Studies of skinned muscle fibers can explain some but not all of these effects, and, in particular, they are less economical in conditions that simulate fatigue. We investigated three factors that may contribute to the different behavior of skinned fibers. 1) Skinned(More)