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PURPOSE Anecdotal evidence suggests an advantageous physiological endowment of the African endurance athlete. Higher fractional utilization of VO2max has been suggested but not measured directly, and investigations of running economy have been inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to measure a) running economy and b) fractional utilization of(More)
Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance(More)
Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92%(More)
Although East African black athletes dominate endurance running events, it is unknown whether black and white endurance runners with similar racing ability, matched for training, may differ in their skeletal muscle biochemical phenotype. Thirteen Xhosa (XR) and 13 Caucasian (CR) endurance runners were recruited and matched for 10-km performance, average(More)
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) forms an important component of endurance athletes' training, but little is known on intramuscular metabolic and fiber type adaptations. This study investigated physiological and skeletal muscle adaptations in endurance runners subjected to 6 weeks HIIT. Eighteen well-trained endurance athletes were subjected to 6(More)
The aim was to separate and characterize the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms of four southern African wild ruminants, namely Blesbuck (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Black Wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) and Blue Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blot(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether low bone density and other risk factors for osteoporosis are associated with stress fractures in athletes. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Institutional sports injury clinic with primary and secondary care. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five athletes (nineteen women) with scintigraphically confirmed stress fractures matched for(More)
Injury of skeletal muscle, and especially mechanically induced damage such as contusion injury, frequently occurs in contact sports, as well as in accidental contact sports, such as hockey and squash. The large variations with regard to injury severity and affected muscle group, as well as non-specificity of reported symptoms, complicate research aimed at(More)
This study determined whether a 4-wk high-intensity interval training program (HIT) would improve the 40-km time trial performances (TT40) of 8 competitive cyclists (peak O2 uptake 5.2 +/- 0.4 I.min-1) with a background of moderate-intensity endurance training (BASE). Before intervention, all cyclists were tested on at least three separate occasions to(More)
Spaceflight and bed rest (BR) lead to muscle atrophy. This study assessed the effect of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation and resistance training with decreased energy intake on molecular changes in skeletal muscle after 28-day BR and 14-day recovery. Thirty-one men (31-55 years) subjected to an 8 ± 6% energy deficit were randomized to receive EAA(More)