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Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance(More)
PURPOSE Anecdotal evidence suggests an advantageous physiological endowment of the African endurance athlete. Higher fractional utilization of VO2max has been suggested but not measured directly, and investigations of running economy have been inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to measure a) running economy and b) fractional utilization of(More)
Skeletal muscle buffering capacity (βm), enzyme activities and exercise performance were measured before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity, sub maximal␣interval training (HIT) undertaken by six well-trained competitive cyclists [mean maximal oxygen consumption ( O2max) = 66.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1]. HIT replaced a portion of habitual endurance training and(More)
Skeletal muscle buffering capacity (beta mtitr) was determined in soleus (type I) and superficial vastus (type II) muscles of 16 Long-Evans rats with differing levels of spontaneous activity and in 11 sedentary control rats. beta mtitr was 24% higher (P < 0.001) in superficial vastus muscle than in soleus muscle (268 +/- 50 vs. 216 +/- 30 mumol H+ g muscle(More)
Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92%(More)
To prevent thermal injuries during distance running, the American College of Sports Medicine proposes that between 0.83 and 1.65 l of water should be ingested each hour during prolonged exercise. Yet such high rates of fluid intake have been reported to cause water intoxication. To establish the freely-chosen rates of fluid intake during prolonged(More)
This study determined whether a 4-wk high-intensity interval training program (HIT) would improve the 40-km time trial performances (TT40) of 8 competitive cyclists (peak O2 uptake 5.2 +/- 0.4 I.min-1) with a background of moderate-intensity endurance training (BASE). Before intervention, all cyclists were tested on at least three separate occasions to(More)
This study was designed to determine the factors predicting the post-race rectal temperature in marathon runners. Post-race rectal temperatures of 30 recreational runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 58.3 +/- 5.9 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; mean +/- SD) who completed a 42.2 km marathon at 75.8% (+/- 9.3%) VO2max were measured and related to their levels of(More)
Amenorrheic athletes have low axial bone-mineral density (BMD, g.cm-2). We compared 12 amenorrheic and 9 eumenorrheic women athletes to determine whether athletes with amenorrhea have lower BMD in other skeletal regions, including weight-bearing lower limbs. BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray and single photon absorptiometry. Both groups had similar age,(More)
Spaceflight and bed rest (BR) lead to muscle atrophy. This study assessed the effect of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation and resistance training with decreased energy intake on molecular changes in skeletal muscle after 28-day BR and 14-day recovery. Thirty-one men (31-55 years) subjected to an 8 ± 6% energy deficit were randomized to receive EAA(More)