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Early nutrition has recently been shown to have pervasive, downstream effects on adult life-history parameters including lifespan, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Damage to biomolecules caused by oxidants, such as free radicals generated during metabolic processes, is widely recognized as a key contributor to somatic degeneration and(More)
Recent behavioural experiments have shown that birds use ultraviolet (UV)-reflective and fluorescent plumage as cues in mate choice. It remains controversial, however, whether such UV signals play a special role in sexual communication, or whether they are part of general plumage coloration. We use a comparative approach to test for a general association(More)
Molecular techniques have revealed striking variation among bird species in the rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) and intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP). In terms of the proportion of broods affected, rates of EPP and IBP vary across species from 0-95% and 0-50%, respectively. Despite a plethora of hypotheses and several careful comparative analyses,(More)
When several individuals simultaneously provide for offspring, as in families, the effort of any one individual will depend on the efforts of the other family members. This conflict of interest among family members is made more complicated by their relatedness because relatives share genetic interest to some degree. The conflict resolution will also be(More)
Maternal effects occur when offspring phenotype is affected by environmental factors experienced by the mother and, in egg-laying species, are often mediated via egg resources. There is currently great interest among behavioural ecologists in maternally allocated yolk androgens, especially their relationship with offspring sex and development. Such studies(More)
Human estrogen receptor-alpha (hERalpha) or -beta (hERbeta) transfected into Hep G2 or COS1 cells each responded to estrogen to increase transcription from an estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-driven reporter vector with similar fold induction through a classical mechanism involving direct receptor binding to DNA. ER antagonists inhibited this estrogen(More)
Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus,(More)
The division of labour in parental care between the two sexes varies between and within species. In birds, parents have been shown to invest more into egg production and nestling care when paired with an attractive rather than an unattractive mate, as predicted by the differential allocation hypothesis. Here we investigate variation in the female's and(More)
Molecular dynamics simulation is a class of applications that require reducing the execution time of xed-size problems. This reduction in execution time is important to drug design and protein interaction studies. Many implementations of parallel molecular dynamics have been developed, but very little work has addressed issues related to the use of machines(More)