Kathryn E. Arnold

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BACKGROUND In January 2005, a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C , Y, and W-135) meningococcal conjugate vaccine was licensed for use in adolescents. This report describes the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease in the United States from January 1998 through December 2007, before and during implementation of adolescent quadrivalent meningococcal(More)
BACKGROUND Group B streptococcal disease is one of the most common infections in the first week after birth. In 2002, national guidelines recommended universal late antenatal screening of pregnant women for colonization with group B streptococcus to identify candidates for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. METHODS We evaluated the implementation of the(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines issued in 1996 in the United States recommend either screening of pregnant women for group B streptococcal colonization by means of cultures (screening approach) or assessing clinical risk factors (risk-based approach) to identify candidates for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS In a multistate retrospective cohort study,(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate risk factors for invasive Escherichia coli infections in the first week of life (early onset), focusing on the role of intrapartum antibiotic use. METHODS We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Between 1997 and 2001, case infants, defined as infants < 7 days of age with E coli isolated from blood or(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Staphylococcus aureus is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that can follow influenza infection. In response to a number of cases reported to public health authorities in early 2007, additional case reports were solicited nationwide to better define S. aureus community-acquired pneumonia during the 2006 to 2007 influenza season. (More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize adherence with recommendations for prenatal infectious disease screening and missed opportunities for prevention of congenital and perinatal infections. METHODS Demographic, prenatal, and peripartum information was abstracted from labor and delivery records of a random, stratified sample of live births in 1998 and 1999 to(More)
BACKGROUND Rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States have been estimated using modeling techniques with data from pneumonia and influenza hospitalization discharge diagnoses, but they have not been directly estimated from laboratory-positive cases. METHODS We calculated overall, age-specific, and site-specific rates of(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the rates of hospitalization with seasonal influenza in children aged <18 years from a large, diverse surveillance area during 2003 to 2008. STUDY DESIGN Through the Emerging Infections Program Network, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza was conducted in 10 states, including 5.3 million children.(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has risen in recent years after the introduction of new macrolides and their increased use. We assessed emergence of macrolide-resistant invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, GA, USA, before and after the licensing, in February 2000, of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine risk factors for carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae to understand better the factors promoting spread of these isolates. STUDY DESIGN We obtained medical and demographic information and nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 216 children less than 6 years old with upper respiratory tract infections, seeking medical(More)