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Non-motile variants of Helicobacter pylori (strain 26695) occurred with a frequency of 1.6 (SD 0.4) x 10(-4) variants/cell/division cycle, and reversion to the motile form occurred with a frequency of less than 10(-7) variants/cell/division cycle. The two forms remained greater than 90% pure for up to 50 cell divisions and differed only in the presence or(More)
Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene(More)
The emergence of novel pathogens poses a major public health threat causing widespread epidemics in susceptible populations. The Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain implicated in a 2011 outbreak in northern Germany caused the highest frequency of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and death ever recorded in a single E. coli outbreak. Therefore, it has been(More)
Helicobacter pylori evades host immune defenses and causes chronic gastritis. Immunity against intestinal pathogens is largely mediated by dendritic cells, yet the role of dendritic cells in acute H. pylori infection is largely unknown. We observed the recruitment of dendritic cells to the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. Bone marrow-derived(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), particularly serotype O157:H7, causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and even death. In vitro studies showed that Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), the primary virulence factor expressed by EDL933 (an O157:H7 strain), is encoded by the 933W prophage. And the bacterial subpopulation in which the 933W prophage(More)
BACKGROUND The aberrant inflammation that is the hallmark of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is associated with several factors, including changes in the intestinal microbiota. Here, we confirmed that an intestinal microbiota is needed for development of typhlocolitis in Helicobacter hepaticus infected IL-10-/- C57BL/6 mice, and investigated the role(More)
We have shown that Helicobacter pylori induces tolerogenic programming of dendritic cells and inhibits the host immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a class of transmembrane pattern recognition receptors essential for microbial recognition and control of the innate immune response. In this study, we examined the role of TLRs in mediating H.(More)
Chronic inflammation in the stomach induces metaplasia, the pre-cancerous lesion that precedes inflammation-driven neoplastic transformation. While Hedgehog signaling contributes to the initiation of some cancers, its role in gastric transformation remains poorly defined. We found that Helicobacter-infected C57BL/6 mice develop extensive mucous cell(More)